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Olympism and Fascism

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Excerpt from the book “The Olympic Deceit of the ‘Divine Baron’ – Pierre de Coubertin” by Ljubodrag Simonović.
 

OLYMPISM  AND  FASCISM

As early as 1929, at the time of the great recession, “father” of the modern Olympic Games Pierre de Coubertin expressed his inclination towards authoritarian regimes, namely his discontent with the inefficiency of the capitalist system in its dealing with the working class :

“First of all, it was necessary to establish the International Olympic Committee with its  basic rights, that should have been acknowledged by all the nations. This was not easy, because the Constitution of the Committee was opposed to the ideas of the time. It discarded the principle of delegation, so dear to our parliamentary democracies – the principle which, having done some great good, seems to be less efficient every day“. (1)

It should also be noted that Coubertin was cordially accepted and his works published in fascist Germany, in spite of being “a great French patriot”, a fact important at the time of German revanchism. Theodor Lewald, the president of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympics, wrote of Coubertin at the end of his Introduction to “Olympische Erinnerungen”, published in Berlin in 1938:

“He understood and enthusiastically saluted the development of the

new Germany under her Great Führer”. (2)

The lecture on the Berlin Olympics delivered by Coubertin on German radio August 4, 1935, testifies that this is not merely a polite exaggeration:

“I was honoured to accept the invitation to give the first lecture on the

importance of the Olympic Games, as their founder and the President

of Honour. I think that the best way to answer the question is to

explain my original ideas and the philosophical basis upon which I

tried to build my work. With great interest I am following the preparations

for the XI Games in this fourth year of the X modern Olympiad. These

preparations are based upon an excellent plan and are executed after an

absolutely clear total idea, with no less care paid to details. I am under

an impression that the whole of Germany, from her Leader to the most

humble participant, wishes with all its heart to make the celebration in

1936 one of the most beautiful that the world has ever seen, although London,

Stockholm, Amsterdam and Los Angeles produced real miracles. In a

year’s time, Christmas bells will announce the appearance of the athletes from

all around the world at the Berlin Stadium. Today I wish to thank the German

government and its people for their efforts in honour of the XI Olympiad.” (3)

Coubertin expressed his ultimate support to the Nazi regime in his broadcasted speech held at the closing ceremony of the Berlin Olympics, the speech that he, himself, later published. This is what he said:

“Guard the holy flame!

The XI Olympic Games will soon be a memory, but what a powerful

and rich memory!

Above all, the memory of beauty. From that moment thirty years ago,

when I summoned a conference on arts, literature and sport, aimed to establish

a permanent relation between the renewed Olympics and the creations of mind

and spirit, the realisation of this ideal has been helped by many prudent efforts,

from Stockholm to Los Angeles. Now Berlin is sanctifying it by some daring

innovations, completely successful ones, such as the relay carrying of the holly

torch from Olympia and the magnificent celebration at the monumental stadium

on the first night of the Games, whose creator is my ingenious friend

and enthusiast Carl Diem.

Memory of courage, because courage was necessary to overcome the difficulties’

Führer met having posed the request “Wir wollen bauen!” (“We want to build!”),

and to confront the disloyal and perfidious attacks that try to stop the progressive

creative enterprise (referring to the boycott of the Berlin Games).

Finally, memory of hope, because understanding stronger than death itself

was forged under the symbolical flag with the five circles… “Freude, Tochter aus…”

(The opening words of Schiller’s “Ode of Joy” which was a part of “the artistic

programme” at the Berlin opening). The history and the struggle will continue,

but science will gradually replace the dangerous ignorance; mutual understanding

will replace blind hatred. Thus the building I built for half a century will be

consolidated. And you, athletes, do not forget the flame lit by the Sun, brought

to you from Olympia to light our epoch. Guard it deep in your souls, to make

it reappear at the other end of the world, in four years time, when we shall

celebrate the XII Olympics at the faraway shores of the great Pacific.” (4)

The reference is made to the fascist Japan. Another great gesture of the IOC!

When speaking of the “perfidious attacks” on the Nazi Olympic Games, Coubertin was also thinking of the attempt on the part of members of the international brigades, the Spanish republican combatants, to organize the “Olympiada popular” in Barcelona in July 1936 as a response to the Nazi Olympic Games. The troops of fascist General Franco prevented these “Peoples Games” being held.

Here is what Heinrich Mann said on the eve of the Nazi Olympic Games :

“Free peoples do not have the right to support the Berlin Olympic Games.

(…) Nazism does not see man other than as an instrument for achieving

its barbarian goals. Can such a regime, based on forced labour and slavery

of the masses, a regime that is preparing for war and exists merely through

mendacious propaganda, respect peaceful sport and free sportsmen? Believe

me, those international sportsmen who go to Berlin are nothing more than

gladiators, prisoners and entertainers for the dictator who already considers

himself master of the world. Finally, I should like to stress that the success

of the Olympic Games will help to prolong Hitler’s regime for a time. It will

give it new possibilities and strength. It will reinforce its prestige…” (5)

Another clue to Coubertin’s attitude towards the Nazi regime in Germany may be found in his interview given to Andre Lang and published in the French paper “Le journal” on August 27, 1936. The motive for this conversation was the article by Jacques Goddet in “L’Auto”, under the title borrowed from Emile Zola – “J’accuse!”, who questioned the legitimacy of the Berlin Olympics. Here are Coubertin’s words:

“The Games are perverted? The Olympic idea is sacrificed to propaganda?

That is utterly untrue. The magnificent success of the Berlin Games served

perfectly the idea of Olympics. Only the French, or almost only the French, are playing Cassandra…”

And further:

“The fact that the Games in 1936 are illuminated by Hitler strength and

discipline causes excitement in France. How could it be different? On the

contrary, we should wish that the Games would always be so well organized,

that every nation takes part in their preparing during the four years.” (6)

Not only the left-wing papers, but also bourgeois journals fervently disputed these attitudes, along with Coubertin’s arguing to organize the French sport after the Nazi model. This is what the “Paris-Soir”, the paper that published the interview with Hitler in January the same year, wrote about the Berlin Games:

“It is not an athlete who is celebrated any more. Instead, the whole nation hails

its colours, the victory of the race, the reigning system, the army… The German

audience breaks the elementary rules of politeness. It should never happen again

that one nation uses the Games to humiliate other nations.” (7)

Having published this article, the Paris journal was not allowed to report from the Games and its journalists were not allowed to enter Germany. (8)

Coubertin had a special reason to be enthusiastic about the Berlin Games. The organizers of the Games had a giant bell casted and decorated with the figure of an eagle, not a very friendly looking one, holding the Olympic circles in his claws. At the rim of the bell there was a message : “Ich rufe die Jugend der Welt” (“I invite the youth of the world”). The Olympic Stadium in Berlin thus became a kind of a modern shrine in which the most spectacular of all the religious rites of the New Age was to be performed – the Nazi Olympic Games. This was the incarnation of the ideas Coubertin fought for all his life.

As far as the “artistic programme” of the Berlin Olympiad is concerned, we have already stated that Coubertin had specially paid tribute to his friend Carl Diem for organizing the “magnificent celebration” of the opening. What did this “magnificent celebration” look like in fact? This is how Richard Mandell described the occasion:

“The most famous living German musician Richard Strauss, dressed in

white, conducts the great orchestra and the chorus of three thousand

voices performing “Deutchland über Alles” and “Horst Wessell Lied“,

and the new “Olympic Hymn“, written specially for the occasion by

the old composer, the cultural hero of both Wilhelm’s and Weimar

Germany.” (9)

Anyhow, Carl Diem was proud of “his” Olympics all his life and emphasized its “artistic programme”. Unfortunately, on Coubertin’s request, this programme contained Beethoven’s “IX symphony“, used as a cover for this fascist festival of death. Following the same principle, the concentration camps may be described as “educational institutions”, since the members of the “lower race” were welcomed by music and the camp gate bore the inscription : “Arbeit macht Frei!” (“Labour liberates!”).

Coubertin’s intention to bequeath his whole literary inheritance to the Third Reich and his wish that the fascist Germany should establish the International Olympic Institute, a developing centre of the international Olympic movement, further describe his exhilaration over the Nazi regime in Germany. He openly entrusted Hitler and his “super-race” with the future of the Olympic movement. His devoted follower Carl Diem, one of the main ideologists of Nazi sport, wrote about this:

“On March 16, 1937, he (Coubertin) made a suggestion to the German

government, related to the sport-historic exhibition during the Olympic

Games of 1936 in Berlin, that the Government should establish the

International Olympic Institute, Centre d’ Etudes Olympiques, to which

he would bequeath his “papiers, documents” and unfinished plans concerning

the entirety of the newly awakened Olympics.” (10)

Hitler’s decision to keep the Olympic Games in Germany forever was one of the motives for such an initiative by Coubertin. After the Berlin Olympics, Hitler gave a customarily megalomaniacal order to his architect Albert Speer to design plans for a new Olympic Stadium (Nürnberg), for more than 400 000 people, due to be finished by 1945.

“Doesn’t matter”, said Hitler, “the 1940 Games will be held in Tokyo. But

after that they will always be held in Germany, on this stadium. And then we

shall prescribe the measurements of the athletic field”. (11)

This is a part of the explanation why “the great French patriot” Coubertin, who concluded his early works with a cry “Vive la France!”, bequeathed his works to the fascist Germany, the biggest enemy of the French. Coubertin saw Hitler and his fascist regime as a possibility to incarnate his own philosophy completely. Hitler’s conception “Wir wollen bauen!”, the practice of the fascist regime, made the perfect affirmation to Coubertin that his deed and his ideas would live in future.

As far as the question “Did he know of the fascist crimes?” is concerned, it must be pointed out that Coubertin, while living in Switzerland, had an opportunity to closely witness these misdeeds. Besides, the Nazis started building concentration camps right after they came to power, and without any discretion.

“The concentration camps existed in Germany from 1933,” says Arthur Morse

in his book “While 6 Million Died”, “and that was no secret for the world. As

we have seen, the existence of Dachau was made public at the beginning of

Hitler’s reign. . . .  In August 1933, “Neuer Vorwärts”, the paper published by

the German socialists in exile, estimated that there were eighty thousand

prisoners in 65 camps.” (12) “By the end of 1933,” Morse says further,

“the reports on murders and molestations multiplied. Lord Marley, Deputy

Speaker of the House of Lords, estimated that two thousand murders

were committed in Germany during (that) year.” (13)

There are other details of Hitler’s “constructing” design that Coubertin unconditionally supported, at the same time fervently attacking the opponents of Hitler’s regime. The brutal elimination of the members of the SA troupes on June 30, 1934 (“The Night of the Long Knives”) ; the persecution of the Jews, culminating in Nurnberg Laws of the Race on September 15, 1935, according to which the Jews were deprived of civil rights (Hitler’s idea first announced in the “Programme of the National-Socialist Party” in February 1920) ; the persecution and murders of the workers and opposition leaders. On March 16, 1935, Hitler announced the rebuilding of the German war machine; on March 7, 1936, only a few days after the Winter Olympic Games at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Hitler’s troupes entered the demilitarized Rhine zone, overtly breaking the international agreements and defying (Coubertin’s “beloved”) France. At the same time, fascists systematically destroyed all the world’s cultural inheritance opposing their ideology. The masterpieces of world’s culture were burnt on monumental bonfires.

Coubertin’s contacts with Hermann Esser further testify to the extent he embraced Nazi propaganda. According to historian Maser, Esser was “among the most influential of Hitler’s collaborators in the National-Socialist Party” as early as 1921 to 1924. (14) In 1925 he was appointed executive of Nazi propaganda by Hitler himself. He soon became the editor of the paper “Die judische Weltpest. Judendämmerung auf dem Erdball” (“The Jewish Plague. The Fall of the Jews”). He became the State Secretary at the Reichministerium in 1939, and at the time of the Nazi agony Esser represented Hitler at the Party’s jubilees in 1943 and 1945. Historian Bracher spoke of Esser as a fanatic member of the National-Socialist Party, who used “the most disgraceful means of anti-Semitic and antidemocratic propaganda”. (15) Here is how this man described to Lammer his meeting with Coubertin on April 6, 1937:

“During my stay in Switzerland last month, I was advised by many parties

to visit the elderly founder of the Olympics, Baron de Coubertin. This

gesture could be very fruitful, since Baron de Coubertin is not exactly

popular either in Switzerland or in his native France. That is just why I

decided not only to visit the Baron in Geneva, but also to invite this

widely celebrated man to a German sanatorium. When I came to Geneva,

the German consul informed me that the Baron was not in good health.

He was willing to see me in spite of it. His accepting the invitation to

Germany depended completely on who was to address the invitation.

During my visit to Baron Coubertin I was under an impression I was

talking to a dying man. I thought it appropriate to convey to this old

gentlemen, who spoke of  the Führer and Reich with such an enthusiasm,

the best regards from the Führer and his invitation to stay in a sanatorium

in Germany. Fortunately, it seems that Baron Coubertin’s health is getting

much better so that he is considering the possibility of coming to Germany.

I have already made all the arrangements for Baron and his family to be

well tended and taken care of in Baden-Baden on the account of the Reich

Tourist Office. His presence here would be very important for the German

tourism. I consider these propaganda visits of utmost importance and I hope

that the Führer will approve of my invitation to Baron Coubertin.” (16)

Coubertin wrote to Hitler, believing that the Führer himself had invited him to Germany:

“Excellence,

I was deeply moved by the visit of the State Minister H.Esser on behalf of

Your Excellence and I hurriedly express my gratitude. Germany thus joins –

and in the most splendid way – the celebration of my jubilee marked on

January 20 at the University of Lausanne. On that occasion I was invited to

crown my fifty-years work, related almost completely to education reforms

and improvements. Germany has shown appreciation of my work on several

occasions and I owe her my deepest gratitude. I hope my health will allow me

to consider and accept the kindest invitation handed to me on behalf of

Your Excellence. I take it as another proof of Your kindness.

I humbly ask Your Excellence to accept my respect and deepest loyalty.

Geneva, March 17, 1937                                      Pierre de Coubertin ” (17)

It should also be added that, on January 28, 1936, Hitler accepted the motion to name after Coubertin the place in front of the southern entrance into the Olympic Stadium (18) An interesting statement was made concerning this matter by Carl Diem in 1946, that the only monument built in honour of Coubertin is in Germany, and that a place there bears his name. (19)

At the same time, the Nazis nominated Coubertin for the Nobel Prize, in opposition to Karl von Ossietzky who was imprisoned as Hitler’s opponent but well respected by the world’s democracies. Coubertin accepted the nomination, hoping it would be supported by the Norwegian Olympic Committee. The Norwegian Peace Committee gave the Prize to Ossietzky and Coubertin, disappointed, wrote to Hans von Tschammer und Osten, the Nazi Sports Minister:

“I know that in the last fifty years I have contributed to peace more by

promoting international sport, than by giving useless speeches and

performances. Your acknowledgement in that respect is ever so precious

to me.” (20)

Speaking about the money Coubertin received from Nazis, one should mention that the better part of the 500 000 golden franc estate he possessed when he started his voyage to Olympus, was nearly gone in the last years of his life. In order to help him, “Pierre-de-Coubertin-Funds” was founded, and French and Norwegian Olympic Committees contributed 5 000 Reich’s marks each. German Interior Affairs State Secretary Pfundtner realizing that helping Coubertin could well serve the image of Nazi Germany and so suggested to Hitler that they should be more generous. Hitler instantly approved of paying Coubertin 10 000 Reich’s Marks. Lewald personally handed the cheek to Coubertin and reported that he “accepted it with great pleasure and gratitude”. (21)

However, Coubertin is not the only “Olympic gentleman” fascinated by fascism. After the October Revolution, the development of the revolutionary movement in Europe and the great recession in 1929 – which all broke the myth of  the “free competition society” and showed what hopes workers could cherish regarding their employers at a time of peril – Hitler appeared as “the saviour of (bourgeois) civilization” from “the plague of communism”. The western governments, specially in the USA and Great Britain, were delighted by “the determination” (read brutality) Hitler showed in his crusades against communists. Trying to justify the Nazi terror in Germany, the American consul Kehl wrote in his letter of March 31, 1933:

“One must admit that the National-Socialist Organization did a great favour to

the world by breaking down communism in Germany. As far as destroying of

the communist plague in some other countries, this could be a positive effect.” (22)

Morse added:

“Although Consul Kehl was alone in his reporting from Germany, his

conviction was widely accepted by the State Department”. (23)

Morse also described the attitude towards fascism expressed by General Sherrill, the American delegate at the IOC:

“Judging the general resentment against fascism, he (Sherrill) praised Mussolini

as ‘a man I’ve  known and respected for a long time, a gallant father who sent

his own two sons in the fiercest battle’ (here Sherrill refers to Mussolini’s

“famous campaign” in Ethiopia). The general gloomily added that he would

wish Mussolini came to USA and dealt with communism there as he had done

in Italy.” (24)

There is another “Olympic gentleman”, besides Sherrill, who was sent from America to Europe in order to examine if Nazi Germany was suitable to organize the Olympic Games – Avery Brundage, the President of the American Olympic Committee at the time, and later the President of  IOC. He was Coubertin’s  great admirer and famous for his anti-communist and racist attitudes. Here is how he justified the fascist terror and practically “made” the American Olympic team take part in the Berlin Games : “No matter what country organizes the Olympic Games, there will always be a group, a religion or a race to protest against the actions of its government, in the present or in the past.” (25) And that is why Brundage addressed the Jews and all the others who boycotted the Nazi Olympics:

“Some Jews must realize that they cannot use these Olympics as an

instrument in their boycott of the Nazis”. (26)

As to the “incident” with Jesse Owens, there exists a version of the story that says Hitler did not refuse to congratulate Owens because of his attitude towards the black man, but because of some protocol problems. Count Baillet-Latour, the President of IOC and Coubertin’s heir, asked Hitler to stop shaking hands with the winners, since he was not an official of the Games, but only a guest. This happened before Owens victory and that is why the handshake was omitted. After the testimony of Baldur von Schirach, one of the closest of Hitler’s collaborators, Führer then said: “The Americans should be ashamed for letting the Negroes win their medals for them. I wouldn’t ever shake hands with a Black.” (27) When Schirach suggested to Hitler to pose for a photograph with Jesse Owens, his “rival in popularity” (28) at the Berlin Olympics, in order to create an impression of a friendly atmosphere at the Games – Hitler “exploded and shouted that the idea was the worst insult”. (29) This version of the story is similar to the one in Albert Speer’s  book “Inside the Third Reich”:

“A few months after the obvious remilitarization of the Rhine zone,

Hitler rejoiced at the harmonic atmosphere at the Olympic Games. He thought

that the international hostility towards National-Socialist Germany was

suspended once and for all. He gave orders to do everything possible to create

an impression of peaceable Germany in the face of numerous important guests.

He himself attended the athletic contests with vivid excitement. Each of the

strangely numerous German victories made him extremely joyful. But he

was also enraged with a series of victories of that fabulous black American

runner Jesse Owens. (Here is where Speer, Hitler’s devoted follower till the

very last days of his regime, once more tries to point out he was “different”.)

People whose ancestors came from the jungle must be primitive, said Hitler,

shrugging his shoulders; their body is stronger than the body of civilized whites.

They make an unfair competition and therefore they must be excluded from the

future Games.” (30)

The IOC wanted above all to acquire the formal cover in public for the Olympics being held in Nazi Germany – to prove that the Olympic movement as well as the Berlin Games “had nothing to do with politics”. The “details” about the participation of the Jewish contestants at the Games, as other facts demonstrate – Baillet-Latour asked Hitler to remove the anti-Semitic posters from the road to the Berlin airport; he also asked the German government to obey the Olympic Declaration and let the Jewish contestants be part of the German team. The worst of all was the fact that the acknowledgements of the formal conditions were used as evidence that “everything is well” in fascist Germany and that there are no persecutions because of race or conditions. The IOC practically supported the Nazi regime and allowed it the international credit.

And that is not all. When fascist Japan refused to organize the Olympic Games in 1940, due to be held in Tokyo – in order to advance freely against the Chinese people and prepare the Far East campaigns –  the IOC frantically tried to find a country willing to organize the Games on the eve of the War. After searching in vain, the IOC addressed the Nazis. Hitler was once more asked to prepare the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. This was another opportunity for him to prove to the world that the Nazi regime wishes above all “peace and collaboration between the peoples of the world”. Besides, it suited Hitler’s plans to move the Games to Germany permanently. He accepted the offer. But soon, for the same reasons as Japan, Germany gave up organizing the Winter Games. Carl Diem spoke once more on behalf of the Nazi regime.

The Berlin Games were the competition between the fascist regimes (Germany, Japan, Italy) and the “democratic” systems (USA, Great Britain, France). The fascists triumphed : Germany did better than the United States for the first time in history; Japan beat England, an Italy won more medals than France. The fascist fanatics saw it as providence and the war could begin.

During World War II the Belgian Count Baillet-Latour, Coubertin’s heir as President of IOC, made plans for “the future” of the Olympic movement in the Nazi “New Order” with Hitler’s men – Diem, Lewald, Hans von Tschammer und Osten. All this, of course, according to the principles of “peaceful collaboration among peoples”!

The real nature of the IOC is illustrated by its structure after the War. First the German Karl von Halt: He entered the IOC in 1929. He held the rank of SA Gruppenführer. After the War he was accused of being a war criminal. He was saved by Avery Brundage’s personal influence. Karl von Halt not only stayed in the IOC, but was also promoted to The Executive Board in 1957. (In 1951 he became president of the West-German Olympic Committee.) A similar destiny is shared by the French Marquise Melchior de Polignac. He entered the IOC in 1914. He spent six months in a French prison as a fascist collaborator. He also stayed in the IOC as a member of The Executive Board till 1950. (31) Both Sigfrid Edstrøm, the first President of the IOC after the War, and Brundage insisted that the Italian fascist Count Paolo Thaon di Revel should also keep his membership on the Committee. He entered the IOC in 1932 and was elected to the Executive Board in 1954. By the same rule the IOC kept Count Alberto Bonacossa, Mussolini’s  follower, in the IOC from 1925, and on the Board from 1952. (32) It seems that the main condition to enter the IOC is to be a member of the fascist movement!

The story about General Giorgio Vaccaro, an Italian fascist, sheds more light on the picture of the “glorious history” of the IOC. He stayed in the Organization in spite of demands by the Italian Olympic Committee that he should be removed as an embarrassment to post-war Italy. This was a defeat for those trying to fight the right of the member-countries of the IOC to elect the members of the IOC and influence its policy. (33) Adolf Friedrich Mecklenburg, the President of the “Foreign Journalists Club” in the Nazi era, Goebbels’ closest assistant, also stayed in the IOC after the World War. Swedish Count Clarence von Rosen, member of the IOC from 1900, wrote to his friend Brundage, after the horrible crimes of the concentration camps were exposed, that the Jews are to be held responsible for all the evil in the world and that “communism is the political form of Judaism”. (34)

Avery Brundage, the leader of the post-war Olympic movement and official President of the IOC from 1952 to1972, publicly supported the Nazi regime even before he entered the IOC. In fact, he entered the IOC because he supported Nazi politics. He brought the American Olympic team to Berlin, in spite of the fervent protests of the American public, something the Nazis were very grateful for. At the same time, Brundage gave passionate speeches all around America, supporting Nazi politics in Germany and arguing for the neutral position of the USA. His main spiritual inspiration was Hitler’s “Mein Kampf”. After the war, trying to build a political career, he fought together with Senator McCarthy in one of the most shameful moments of American history. In these years “the Olympic peace-maker” Brundage reproached the American government for stopping the Korean war, for that was “a shameful act for all the whites in Asia”. (35) Brundage closed his career by supporting the racist regime in South Africa. In his famous speech at the Munich Olympic Games in 1972, he regrets “the lost battle for Rhodesia”. (36) According to American professor Guttmann, for tens of years after the Berlin Olympic Games, Brundage was considered as an “open admirer of Hitler”. (37)

Here are some details, cited by Guttmann, showing Brundage’s “moral purity”, on which he insisted while President of the IOC. Avery Brundage was part of the American Olympic team in 1912 in Stockholm. His most dangerous rival was an Indian named Jim Thorpe, who was first in the pentathlon. Brundage came in sixth and left the competition before it ended, incapable of taking the defeat in a sporting manner. (38) Thorpe had his medals taken away after his triumph, because of the accusation he played baseball on a semi-professional team and received money for it. There is a strong indication that Brundage was a secret instigator of this intrigue. Things appear more obvious if one knows that Brundage, “the protector of traditional values”, refused to acknowledge his two illegitimate sons, fearing that this would ruin his image and prevent him from being elected President of the IOC. (39)

Brundage was the one to introduce Juan Antonio Samaranch to the IOC in 1966, as a man “whom he trusted and loved”. Two years later Samaranch was appointed Chief of Protocol, and in 1970 Brundage introduced him to the Executive Board.

The biggest shortcoming of Vyv Simson’s and Andrew Jennings‘ book about Samaranch, “The Masters of The Rings”, is that it exclusively deals with the sport of our times and starts from a premise that “only a decade ago it was a source of beauty and purity”. Firmly holding to this absurd belief, the authors fail to properly analyze the history of the modern Olympic movement. Without this analysis it is impossible to explain how one of the leading fascists of Spain became the president of the IOC. Had they spent some time investigating the political biography of Avery Brundage they would have realized that Samaranch didn’t win Brundage’s trust by doing him small favours, but precisely because he was an orthodox fascist. Samaranch was a real Brundage man. Brundage knew very well that Samaranch was a high ranking member of the fascist regime in Spain and that he was responsible for bloody oppression in Cataluña. Brundage was not bothered by the fact that Samaranch, as a member of the IOC, publicly displayed his fascist beliefs and wore his fascist uniform while marching in the streets of Barcelona, then went on to speak about Olympic “ideals”. Having this in mind, it becomes clearer how in 1965, of all places, the IOC chose fascist Madrid to hold its general assembly, which was chaired by General Franco!

As the masters of the Olympic movement always liked to point out, sport and especially the Olympic Games had “nothing to do with politics”. This was, after all, confirmed by Franco himself. Chairing the IOC assembly, he did not speak about politics (he offered the American government to set up military bases in Spain) but about his “loyalty to Olympic ideals”, about “peace”, “international cooperation”… and for it he was rewarded with a huge ovation from the gentlemen of the IOC. That‘s the way fascist dictator Franco became, shoulder to shoulder with Coubertin, Baillet-Latour, Diem, Hitler, Goebbels, Mussolini and Brundage, a part of  “glorious” Olympic history. It was enough to speak about Olympic ideals to turn the world’s biggest criminals into Olympic angels!

The “cunning chameleon” Juan Antonio Samaranch realized this in time. By preaching holy Olympic prayers of “peace” and “international cooperation”, this “hundred per cent Francoist”, as he liked to call himself among friends, was transformed into a messenger of peace and welcomed everywhere. After the Olympic Games in Barcelona, the Spanish King decorated Samaranch with the title of Marquise. It seemed that fascist Samaranch, after the Barcelona Games, repaid the debts for his crimes. Citizens of Spain, who lived through the years of the criminal regime, were not deceived by the “cunning chameleon”. For them, as with the rest of the freethinking world, he remained what he always was, a fascist. The “cunning chameleon” changed his colours but his nature stayed the same.

Interestingly enough, Samaranch’s official biography, published by the IOC, does not mention a single word about his long political activity in Spain. Here is an excerpt from this publication, entitled “The Olympic movement”, published in 1984 by IOC:

“Born 1920 in Barcelona. Industrialist, ex-ambassador of Spain in Moscow.

Vice president and president of  National Olympic Committee of Spain between

1955-1970, he was one of the organizers of second Mediterranean Games in

Barcelona in 1955. Entered IOC in 1966 and was a member of several boards.

As member of the executive committee and vice president he inherits the

position of president of  the IOC from lord Killanin in 1980 and has since

been in charge of the Olympic movement.” (40)

In order to deceive the world public and create himself a new image to suit the position he was now occupying, Samaranch omitted from his biography that he was a (fascist) member of the (fascist) parliament (Cortes) of Spain; member of a (fascist) city council in Barcelona; president of the (fascist) regional council of Cataluña, and even that he was appointed minister for sport (by Franco). The IOC propaganda service was like everything else in the IOC under Samaranch’s control. It aimed to create a myth about Samaranch: “He is a decent man who has dedicated his whole life to the Olympic movement” – according to one of the propaganda pamphlets manufactured at the IOC headquarters in Lausanne.

The situation is changing all the more as the obdurate representatives of totalitarian regimes are being replaced by pragmatic “new boys” who are first and foremost interested in money. This is logical, for fewer and fewer national flags and more and more flags of multilateral companies are flying over the Olympic arenas. The Olympic Games have become a huge hoarding for advertising multinational companies. In this context the question arises as to the meaning of the famous maxim that “sport has nothing to do with politics”. For while sport was in the hands of bureaucratic clans it was constantly stressed that “sport must be cleansed of politics”. This was the sacred formula to solve all problems. Where are those “humanists” now when the Olympic gentlemen are literally selling the Olympic Games to capitalist concerns? What has happened to the “struggle against the manipulation of sport and sportsmen”? Where is their “freedom-loving” word now? “Freeing sport from politics” is thus becoming the struggle for the unlimited freedom of capital in sport.

Today’s Olympic Games have not only lost legitimacy from the point of view of the humanistic values upon which the Olympic bosses call, but also from the point of view of the Coubertin’s Olympic idea. Instead of national flags, the Olympic Games are becoming increasingly dominated by the symbols of capitalist companies; instead of  “a church”, the Olympic Games are becoming a “fairgrounds”; instead of “the elite” of nations and races, participants are becoming “circus gladiators”; instead of being “educational” (Coubertin’s religio athletae), sport is becoming a profit-making business; instead of the “will to win”, scientific teams, laboratories and medications are becoming the basic driving force of sport; instead of the sports “elite” being recruited from the highest strata of society, sport is becoming the “privilege” of those at the lower end of the social ladder; instead of a demonstration of the “superiority” of the white race, “coloured peoples” are becoming dominant in the sports arenas; instead of  “crowning the victors”, women have become the main “traction force” in beating records; instead of being the honourable “trustees of the Olympic idea”, Olympic officials have become unscrupulous merchants who have turned the Olympic Games into banal show-business…

The present day Olympic torch, which was first carried by aristocrats and then handed over to fascists and then to cold-war hawks has ended up in the hands of Olympic merchants. Those who swear most strongly by Coubertin have dug the grave for his Olympic idea.

Heidegger’s Notion of “Being”

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Heidegger has established a duality between Being (Sein) and man. There is a “relationship” between Being and man, with Being as prior to and independent of man and representative of that conditioning the entity which allows man to be man. Indeed, there is no “relationship” between Being and man; but man stands in relation to Being, which, as such, is the key to understanding the nature of man and, thereby, the nature of Being. Heidegger’s Being does not have a historical foundation or a historical character. Rather than being based on man’s libertarian and creative practice, it is a givenness independent of man and the world, which means it has a phenomenological character.

According to Heidegger, man can be the “neighbour” and the “shepherd of Being”, but not its creator. It is only through such a relationship of man to Being that Being can be Being, which means that only as the „shepherd of Being“ can man be  man. Man, being the „shepherd of Being“, is actually the shepherd of his authentic (tragic) existence and thus the caretaker of the world, which is the house of Being. Indeed, Heidegger’s Being is a form in which man becomes alienated from himself as a social, creative, libertarian, historical and, thus, a visionary being. Man’s need to fulfill his real human potential as a concrete social and visionary being is replaced with the „need“ for an abstract „Being“.

In Heidegger, the truth is not inside, but outside of man. Instead of being guided by humanism and emanating an aura (Benjamin) that illuminates the path leading to the future, man is human only when he is illuminated by the light emanating from Being, a gleaming that is at once above and beside man. Heidegger postulates humanism with a metaphysical nature, which means that it is independent of man. It becomes a mirror in which man can recognize his image. Heidegger’s interpretation of Hölderlin is very indicative of that. Instead of directing his gaze towards another man and the future, man should direct his gaze towards the sky, like early seafarers who navigated only by the stars.

Heidegger: “What is Being? Can we ask of Being what it is? Being remains self-explanatory and unquestioned and, therefore, unthought. Being persists in the long forgotten and fathomless truth.”

The purpose of fundamental ontology is to abolish the very possibility of questioning the nature of Being, because, according to Heidegger, it inevitably amounts to the objectification of Being and thus to the abolishment of the tragic, which is the essence of human existence. By personifying Being, Heidegger indicates that man cannot establish an immediate relation to Being by way of reason, which, by questioning its nature, conceptualizes and thus objectifies Being. In other words, reason makes it impossible for man to experience Being and to dwell in its neighbourhood.

Heidegger abolishes the possibility of an unobjectifying rational relation to Being. His fundamental ontology therefore does not seek to create a mode of thinking that would be able to think of Being without reducing it to an object, but rather seeks to abolish thinking as a mediator between man and Being, which means between man and his existence. „Poetically man dwells“ – Heidegger cites Hölderlin. This is the „long forgotten and fathomless truth where Being persists“. The truth cannot be attained by thinking, but by living a life based on the experience of Being.

Heidegger fell into the trap that he, himself, had set. If Being “remains self-explanatory and unquestioned and therefore unthought”, why does Heidegger mention being as “something”? Moreover, Heidegger declares Being to be a non-conceptual phenomenon and then determines its specific concept, reducing it thereby to an object. The specificity of Being as “something” lies, according to Heidegger, in that we cannot comprehend it, can only experience it. Also, Being has a personal nature and we cannot ask of it “what it is”. Furthermore, “Being remains self-explanatory and unquestioned and therefore unthought”. And,  “Being persists in the long forgotten and fathomless truth”.

Just as with theology, naming and personifying produces a „God“, with Heidegger’s philosophy, naming and personifying produces a „Being“. Being, however, does not exist; there is only a notion of „Being“, which is the product of Heidegger’s philosophical (religious) imagination and exists in Heidegger’s philosophical language. Just as the word „God“ denotes the synthesis of a specific and absolutized view of the world, man, ruling order and future, Heidegger’s expression „Being“ denotes a specific and absolutized ideological model of the world, man and future. Being is a givenness that is not thought because the ruling order is a givenness that cannot be questioned. Heidegger’s philosophical relation to Being is actually a theological relation to the ruling order. Instead of turning to the future, man turns towards Being, which is an instrument for deifying the existing world.

Heidegger confronts the mind because it creates concepts that mediate between man and his existence, but Heidegger must name Being, personify it and determine its concept because, without it, man cannot have a notion of Being and relate to it. In other words, it is only through the notion of Being, which is the product of Heidegger’s philosophy, that man can believe that Being exists and to „relate“ to it by experiencing it. By his philosophy, Heidegger personifies and conceptualizes Being, providing the illusion of its existence: „something“ that is an ideological product acquires the dimension of real existence. The peculiar quality of Heidegger’s philosophy is not the ideology it produces, but the way in which it does so.

Heidegger proclaimed the flaw in his thinking to be the flaw in thinking itself. However, it is Heidegger’s philosophy rather than thinking that turns a phenomenon into an object. Heidegger posed the question on the nature of “what” in an objectifying manner. What gives Heidegger’s thinking the objectifying qualify is his phenomenological relation to man and history. Rather than departing from dialectical thinking, according to which “what” has a historical nature, Heidegger departs from the kind of thinking that produces phenomenological abstractions.  “What” is an object if it is reduced to a givenness and thus separated from the creative practice of man as a historical being. Indeed, “what” is not that what is, but that what can be. Its essence is not grasped by serving Being, but through a creative practice which can give life to his emancipatory potential. It is only in the context of creating a new world that “what” can overcome objectification and thus the danger of falling into the metaphysical. In that sense, revolution is the most radical form of the abolishment of thinking as the production of objectification.

The essence is not in the question but in questioning. By posing questions, man establishes a relation to the world, whereby he changes both the world and himself by becoming an authentic creative being. By questioning the world, man indicates that the world is not a  givenness and that he is not merely a part of the world, but an authentic creative being, whereas the world is the product of his libertarian and creative practice. The relationship between man and the world is dynamic and has a dialectical and thus a historical character. In the historical process of man’s becoming a creative being, “what” loses its objectifying and acquires a historical dimension. The posing of questions is such a relation to the world that indicates its limits and opens up spaces for a possible future.

Heidegger calls for the abolishment of all that mediates between man and his existence and then, by way of his philosophy, postulates Being, which he proclaims is the unquestionable entity mediating between man and the world. This is the basis for man‘s being a “shepherd of Being”. The indisputable loyalty to Being is the basic presupposition of man’s co-existence with Being. Any doubt in Being or a critical relation to Being are excluded. Man does not have a questioning but an idolizing relation to Being. He does not relate to Being as an emancipated citizen, but as a loyal subject. Man has a religious relation to Being.

Why does man have a need for Being if he is thrown into the world where Being is forgotten? Heidegger, actually, does not address Being; he addresses man. His demand that man be a “shepherd of Being” is meaningful only if man already has a need for Being, and if he is ready and willing to be the “shepherd of Being”. Heidegger does not problematize this question, since it opens the possibility of coming to the conclusion that man, who has a need for Being and who is ready and willing to be the “shepherd of Being”, does not actually need Being. In other words, man is already that which, according to Heidegger, he is only to become as the “shepherd” and the “neighbor” of Being. Ultimately, man’s need for Being conditions man’s relation to Being and thereby the possibility of Being as Being.

In order to be the “shepherd of Being”, man, according to traditional philosophy, must know what Being is and must have a notion of Being. For Heidegger, this is an obsolete way of thinking, preventing man from having a more immediate relation to his existence and thus to Being. According to Heidegger, man’s relation to Being is based on the immediate experience of his tragic existence arising from the fear of death. Because of his fear of death, man acquires a need for Being that enables him to conquer death and experience eternal life. Man’s return to Being is actually man’s return to his immediate existence with a tragic character.

What does the “oblivion of Being” mean? Does it mean that modern man has lost his notion of Being or that he has lost his need for Being? If we have in mind Heidegger’s insistence that man has to become the “neighbor of Being” and that his relation to Being is not based on his thinking of Being, but on its experience, we can conclude that, for Heidegger, the “oblivion of Being” means that modern man has lost his need for Being. Departing from that conclusion, to insist that man should become the “shepherd” and the “neighbor” of Being becomes meaningless. According to Heidegger, in spite of falling into the abyss of nothingness created by the world of technology, man is a mortal being and the fear of death is awakened in him over and over again, creating a need for Being. The experience of the fear of death is the path leading man from the abyss of nothingness to Being.

Heidegger’s abstract Being is a mediator between man and the world, which means a mediator between people. For Heidegger, sociability does not have any importance whatsoever with respect to man’s confrontation with death, since human beings as human beings cannot conquer death and thus abolish their tragic existence. A need for people is therefore replaced with a need for Being. Being becomes the essence of man, who is deprived of authentic sociability.

Trying to determine Heidegger’s Being in a rational way is the same as trying to capture clouds with a fork. The indeterminability of Being represents its primary property. Being manifests its indeterminability when we attempt to determine it. Indeterminability is actually the expression of the elusiveness of Being. Man’s relation to Being is similar to that between a child and a ball: whenever a child tries to catch a ball, it bounces back. Heidegger attempted to establish a relationship between man and Being that will enable man to grasp Being in such a way that it remains elusive. Man cannot determine Being rationally and through his creative practice, however, he can experience Being. This is the starting point for the creation of a new thinking that insists on poetry and involves the overcoming of philosophy as a pure ratio. Instead of the thinking of Being, the dominant feeling should be a closeness with Being. That is why Heidegger insists on a “neighborhood with Being”.

Heidegger attempted philosophically to “resolve” the question of God as the embodiment of values that serves as a bulwark and prevents man from falling into the abyss of nothingness. His fundamental ontology was meant to be the basis for a new way of thinking that turns theology into ontology. God moves from Heaven to the Earth. He is no longer an abstract entity to which man relates by way of a religious dogma and the church, but a being living in man’s neighborhood, illuminating him and filling him with warmth. The experience of the presence of Being and the co-existence with Being, without the mediation of reason based on the objectification of man’s existence that leads to a doubt which is the source of nihilism, is the most important point connecting Heidegger’s philosophy to the philosophy of Kierkegaard.

In the analysis of Hölderlin’s poetry, Heidegger points out the presence of God. Talking about God and Heaven, he creates the impression of a warm certainty that brings calmness into people’s lives. Homelessness and the fear of vanishing are gone… Through science and technology, man has created a false image of himself and has acquired a false sense that he has become the master of life and death – thus creating an inauthentic existential condition. He is “thrown into the world” ruled by nihilism, which is his home only in a technical sense. Heidegger propounds an authentic existence ruled by the fear of death, since it is only on the basis of such fear that man can have a need for God, offering him a possibility to conquer death and ensuring eternal life. The “oblivion of Being” is based on the oblivion of this Earthly temporariness, and it is only relative to this oblivion that a need for Being is possible.

It is no accident that Heidegger cites Hölderlin, whose poetry brings God into people’s homes. The language of poetry connects man with Being. It becomes the language of praying: the way of addressing God is not a calling forth, but appealing to God. The poetical, which corresponds to the ancient poiesis, is the construction of the home of Being, whose roof is the sky as the divine firmament. God has returned to man’s home at this poetical call, whereby man is assured eternal life in God’s world. In his co-existence with Being, man becomes a god-man. Dasein is a deified man.

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović (Petrović)

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

 

 

Heidegger and Nazism

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We would be incorrect to try and establish a direct relationship between Nazi ideology and Heidegger’s philosophy, particularly if we were to look for the basis of Heidegger’s thought in Nazi ideology. Heidegger’s philosophy and Nazi ideology are closely related in as much as they both come from the same source. They are branches on a tree growing from German expansionism.

In the lecture delivered on 8 April 1936 in fascist Rome, and entitled “Europe and the German Philosophy” (“Europa und die deutsche Philosophie”), Heidegger clearly indicates the strategic political goals of German philosophy. Its primary task is to “shield European people” from “the Asiatic” by overcoming the “rootlessness and disintegration” of the European nations. Heidegger advocates a “transformation of the historical survival” of Europe, which cannot be achieved as a “blind pushing forward into an indeterminate future”, but “only as a creative confrontation with the whole of history up to now”. He ends his war-mongering speech with Heraclitus: “War is the father and king of all: some he has made gods, and some men; some slaves and some free…” It is easy to see who was supposed to be turned into slaves by the imminent war and who would be masters.

Heidegger actually presented German philosophy with the task of removing from the history of European people all that can impede their integration into a Nazi “new European order”. It is a Gleichschaltung, a process meant to destroy the emancipatory heritage of European people and use them in the realization of Germany’s most important strategic task: the annihilation of the Slavs and the invasion of their living space (Lebensraum). Heidegger’s philosophy provided the philosophical grounds for the basic existential interests of German capitalism and became a strategic platform for German colonial expansion. Heidegger supported the idea of a „Greater Germany“, an idea that long predates Hitler. For Heidegger, the Nazi regime was but one of the historical forms through which this idea was to be realized. Even after the collapse of Nazi Germany, Heidegger remained faithful to the idea of a „Greater Germany“ and, in that context, to the strategic goals of the Nazi regime.

To express it in a more popular, contemporary jargon, Heidegger appears an “expert on strategic issues”. This is the main reason why Heidegger was adamant that his philosophy not have a political nature. His thought is not concerned with temporary political events, but with the “increase of Being”, which manifests itself in the development of the conquering abilities of the Germans as a master race. Heidegger’s philosophy appears to be in the essential sphere, however, for the essence of “Being” is not freedom and justice, but the existential interests of the German capitalism.

If we tried to establish the political doctrine that rises from Heidegger’s fundamental ontology, we might conclude that it is fundamentally totalitarian. In Heidegger’s philosophy, all social spheres are alienated from man and are but the means for man’s integration into the ruling order. Man does not create the world, he is “in the world”; he does not create history, he is “in history”; he does not create a language, he is “in the language”… Heidegger does not offer freedom to man; he offers him “eternity” in the shade of “Being” – provided he pledges unquestioning loyalty to the ruling order, which deprives him of everything that makes him human. Heidegger embalms man. Deprived of any humanness, man travels to “eternity” as a mummy.

Heidegger’s philosophy represents the basis of a political strategy which seeks to build not only a totalitarian state, but also a totalitarian society. In that context, Heidegger sets out to create a “new man”, one deprived of all the properties that enable him to create a humane society. Instead of insisting on the development of a dialectical mind, enabling man to create a humane world, Heidegger insists on the experience of a tragic existence with a fatal character and, based on that, on a faith in “Being”, representing the idealized essence of the existing world.

Is the abolishment of man’s reasonable relation to his existence and the world and the shifting of the question of “Being” to the sphere of an instrumentalized mysticism the strongest bond connecting Heidegger’s philosophy to the Nazi ideology? Both doctrines try to bring themselves into favour with the mystic powers that rule the world. The darkness of “nothingness” becomes the source of the “will to power”. A mystical language penetrates the dark labyrinths of sub-consciousness and enables suppressed needs to be projected, by verbal manipulation, into illusions, which by means of a political indoctrination turn into spectres that will devour the world. Heidegger was among those who fed the demons growing in the murky depths of the German petty-bourgeois sub-consciousness.

Guided by the ruling political logic, Heidegger strives to turn the misery experienced by man on a daily basis into the active power of the ruling order. His philosophy attempts to convert the existential anxiety of the Germans into the driving force of German expansionism. At the same time, he sees in the Germans the organic part of a “folk community”, whose active will is based on the myth of  “racial superiority” and is institutionalized in the form of the ruling (Nazi) order. The ultimate goal of Heidegger’s philosophy is to turn German society, as a politically and culturally pluralistic community of emancipated citizens, into the “German nation”, which is “united” under one (totalitarian) political banner and which, based on a fanatical mythological consciousness, has the “feeling of intrinsic superiority” and as such is ready to fulfill its “historical mission”. The militant Greater German fanaticism, with its mythological foundation, becomes the basis of the collective consciousness.

For Heidegger, Germany’s future is on the capitalist horizon, the state being the supreme regulatory mechanism of all social life. Anti-liberalism and anti-communism are the cornerstones of his political doctrine, and his relation to Nazism is based on them. Heidegger seeks to limit the “freedom of the market”, which leads to economic instability and does away with political pluralism, which then leads to political instability. In that context, he seeks to confront the workers’ movement and the idea of socialism (communism) and to integrate workers into the ruling order as members of the “German nation”. Ultimately, Germany’s economic and political stability were meant to ensure its successful colonial expansion. Heidegger’s political doctrine is close to that of Nazism, whose aims, according to Herbert Marcuse, were to “organize monopolistic production”, “shatter the socialist opposition” and “restore imperial expansionism”.

In Heidegger’s philosophy, we can discern a political doctrine underlying the Catholic and fascist vision of the future. It is an “industrial feudalism”, which involves the abolishment of man as an emancipated citizen and thus as a political agent in the establishment of society as a political community; reduction of the state to an instrument of the most powerful capitalist groups in their attempt to establish “social peace”; the abolishment of trade unions and the degradation of workers to industrial serfs and the exaltation of capitalists to feudal masters; the abolishment of a class society by replacing it with a “folk community”; the establishment of a totalitarian political will embodied in a “Leader” and in the ruling order …. “Ein Volk – ein Führer!” – this is the political essence of Heidegger’s fundamental ontology. It is explicitly expressed in Heidegger’s view from 1933, that “the Führer alone is the present and future German reality and the law”.

Heidegger’s open support of the Nazi regime is not only the product of his careerism and cannot be separated from his philosophy, which abolishes the emancipatory legacy of bourgeois society and provides the theoretical grounds for German expansionism. We should remember here the very beginnings of Heidegger’s cooperation with the Nazis. The enthusiasm with which Heidegger, as a professor and rector, endorsed Hitler, supported Nazism and denounced his colleagues, are expressions of his endeavors to become the leading philosopher of Nazi Germany, while his philosophy was to be the generally accepted basis of the Nazi ideology. In Heidegger‘s view, Hitler was the political leader of the Germans, but he reserved to himself the role of their spiritual leader.

Heidegger belonged to the group of German intellectuals who tried to prove that the Germans’ “predestination” to be a “Messianic people” is based on German cultural heritage that makes them superior to other cultures. Long before Heidegger, the myth of the Germans as the “nation of philosophers” had been an integral rationale for German expansionism. In that context, Leonardo da Vinci, Giotto, Buonarroti were all claimed as Germans… At the same time, German intellectuals appropriated the Ancient Greek spiritual heritage and used it to create the myth of “German spiritual superiority”. A typical example is the archaeological excavations in Ancient Olympia, started at the time of Bismarck and finished by Nazi archaeologists (Emil Kunze), with Hitler’s “personal” donation in the amount of 300 000 Reichsmarks. The carrying of the “Olympic Torch”, during the organization of the Nazi Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936, from the “holy Olympia” to the Nazi Berlin, has a special symbolic value and served to prove to the Nazis that they were the legitimate heirs of the cultural legacy of the Ancient Helada, “the spiritual cradle” of Western civilization.

Heidegger’s vision of Germans as a “metaphysical nation” is a political idea par excellence. It is the basis of the political rationale for German expansionism. Philosophy becomes a support, a justification and philosophical foundation for the governing political project. Rather than using the Nazi regime in the realization of his ideas, Heidegger used his philosophy to provide philosophical legitimacy to the Nazi‘s political and economic goals, and ultimately to Nazi practice.

Heidegger is not original. In order to justify German expansionism, he refers to “spiritual values”, in the same manner that imperialist France and England referred to “culture” and “civilization” in their attempts to justify colonial expansion and the eradication of “colored races”. Indeed, Heidegger’s philosophy rejects the emancipatory heritage of German culture, particularly the heritage that opens a space for overcoming colonialism and racism. In view of the events on the contemporary global scene, Heidegger’s philosophy is not only a philosophical expression of an expansionist strategy for the Nazi‘s “new European order”, but also for the expansionist strategy of the American “new world order”. Nothing new on the Western Front.

Considering Heidegger’s authority in the intellectual circles of Nazi Germany, we can safely say that his philosophy created a significant intellectual space for the affirmation of the German ideology. Heidegger’s philosophy greatly contributed to the development of a theoretical foundation for the idea of the Germans as a “master race”. In the concrete political conditions in Nazi Germany, the claim that the Germans have a “superior culture and mind” relative to other nations, inevitably led to nationalism and racism, and it is what the transition from the “leading nation” to the “master race” is based on. The myth of the Germans as the “nation of philosophers” became one of the sources of their racist ideology. German racism was elevated to the throne of philosophy.

Did the German cultural heritage not oblige Heidegger, as well as other German intellectuals, to oppose Nazism? Instead of being the basis for a criticism of the Nazi ideology and practice, German philosophy provided philosophical legitimacy to Nazi barbarism. Scumbags and snitches like Adolf Hitler and Josef Goebbels became the embodiments of the German “philosophical spirit”.

It should be noted here that during the 20th century the torch of the “German philosophical spirit” was carried by Jews (Wilhelm Dilthey, Edmund Husserl, Herbert Marcuse, Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Ernest Bloch…), a people who were almost eradicated as a “lower race” by the “philosophical” Germans in the concentration camps of the Third Reich.

It is a sad truth that Adorno and Horkheimer allowed themselves to be used in post-war Germany‘s attempt to conceal the true nature of German “democracy” under the American boot. While they were giving lectures in German philosophy at West German universities to recent fanatical members of the Hitlerjugend, the Americans built an army of 40 000 SS members, still highly loyal to Hitler and led by one of the most notorious of Hitler’s storm troopers, Reinhard Gehlen, a force meant to “protect German democracy from communism” under the American command.

Heidegger’s relation to the German language illustrates the racist and totalitarian intention of his fundamentalism. The German language becomes a prayer language par excellence with which to appeal to the “Being” and establish a “neighborhood” with it, while Heidegger’s philosophy becomes the German “Holy Scripture”. With his fundamental ontology, Heidegger sought to deify the political project of the future he advocated, where the Germans, in the form of the Nazi movement, would take on the role of the “Messianic Nation”.

In addition to being based on a cultural imperialism, Heidegger’s view that the Germans are the “nation of philosophers” and that his philosophy, as manifested in the German language, is the “home of Being”, also indicates that the Germans, as manifested in Heidegger’s philosophy, are the indisputable owners of the truth. This entitles them to be a “chosen people” with the duty of bringing humanity back to the right path. In other words, in spite of being “thrown into a world” ruled by nihilism, the Germans, as the “nation of philosophers”, uniquely possess such mental and spiritual qualities that both enable and entitle them to bring about a spiritual rebirth of humanity.

Since the Germans, as the “nation of philosophers”, are the bearers of the supreme wisdom, a criticism of their (criminal) practices is possible only as their own (German) self-criticism. This is one of the reasons why Heidegger, who saw himself as the most authentic representative of the “German philosophical spirit”, indignantly rejected the very possibility of being questioned about the responsibility of the Germans for the Second World War and the atrocities committed.

Friedrich Nietzsche charged the “new nobility” with the task of “re-evaluating all values” (“Umwertung aller Werte“) and returning humanity to the right track. Heidegger entrusted the same chore to the Germans, whose active power appears in the form of the Nazi movement. The Germans are predestined to be the „master nation“ with an exclusive historical task to return humanity to the track abandoned in Ancient times. How can the crimes committed by the Germans – and never condemned by Heidegger – even compare to this Messianic task? Concentration camps and the eradication of entire nations – all this is nothing compared to the crucial task that Heidegger bestowed upon them. The nature of that task determined the nature of the political practice necessary for its realization. The principle that „the ends justify the means“ obtained, with Heidegger’s philosophy, a fundamental-ontological foundation.

Rather than being an educator, Heidegger is a modern crusader, who sees the Germans as a „master nation“, the active power of which is manifested in the Nazi movement. Heidegger does not call on the Germans to turn to philosophy, but rather to do whatever it takes to assure the ruling position in the world. A return to the „Being“ is not achieved by their enlightenment, but through the submission and eradication of other nations by means of science and technology. Guided by the governing principle of monopoly capitalism, „Destroy the competition!“, the Nazis, openly supported by Heidegger, a staunch critic of technicity, turned Germany into a death factory. What Heidegger has in mind when he refers to „tradition“ is not  German culture, but German militarism. Rather than being attained through philosophy and art, „Being“ is attained  with a drawn sword.

With regard to Heidegger’s direct cooperation with the Nazis, the general public has an insight only into his censored biography, missing all the “details” indicating that Heidegger’s support of the Nazis was much stronger and more thorough than officially claimed.  This is clearly seen in Heidegger’s “Black Diary” (“Die Schwarzen Hefte“) – parts of which appeared in German bookstores in 2014 – which contains Heidegger’s notes and daily commentaries from the period 1931-1941. At the same time, there is a justified concern that some documents, hinting at Heidegger’s cooperation with the Nazis, have been destroyed in attempts to save „philosopher Heidegger“ from compromising „details“ of his past. In any case, „Dossier Heidegger“ is not closed. Only when true anti-fascists in Germany come to power, and the German citizens finally confront their fascist heritage, will the truth about Heidegger’s past come to light.

The „conciliatory“ attitude of official West Germany to Heidegger in the post-war period reflects its attitude toward Nazism. Details surrounding the interview given by Heidegger to the journalist of „Der Spiegel“ Rudolph Augstein, at the end of September 1966, indicate the extent to which Nazism was present in the post-war history of West Germany, which was an allied „occupation zone“ where the Germans’ Nazi past was the most important warrant of their loyalty to the American occupier. It is the only long interview given by Heidegger in his philosophical and political career, and it lasted 100 minutes. The interview was held in Heidegger’s mountain cabin at Todtnauberg. Heidegger agreed to give the interview under the condition that it be published after his death. Heidegger died on 26 May 1976, at the age of 86. Only three days later, „Der Spiegel“ published the interview under the following titles „Der Philosoph und das Dritte Reich“ („Philosopher and the Third Reich“) and „Nur noch ein Gott kann uns retten“ („Only a God Can Save Us“). The interview was attended by Georg Wolff, former German SS soldier, in his capacity as „editor of social sciences“ for „Der Spiegel“. During the Second World War he held the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer and participated in the executions of prisoners in Norway. He prepared the interview for publishing. Sapienti sat.

It should be noted here that Heidegger’s attitude towards the Jews is the most important criterion in the West for determining the extent to which he was close to the Nazi movement. Heidegger is thus accused of not condemning the Nazi Germany’s criminal policy towards the Jews. But what about the attitude of Nazi Germany and Heidegger to the Slavic peoples, who were also degraded to the status of a “lower race”? During the Second World War, the Nazis and the regular German army killed over 35 million Slavs. In Poland, the Germans killed over 6 million people. In the Soviet Union, they wiped out  70 000 villages, 1710 towns, 2766 churches and monasteries, 4000 libraries, 427 museums and 32 000 factories, and executed over 27 million Russians, Belarussians and Ukrainians. In Serbia, German soldiers executed children, while in Croatia, Nazi Germany allowed the Ustasha to kill over 700 000 Serbs. Why does the West not criticize Heidegger for not condemning the numerous atrocities committed by Nazi Germany against the Slavs? To cover-up the German genocide carried out against the Slavs actually means to cover-up the essence of the Second World War.

Just as the idea of “American superiority” serves to justify the imperialist policy of the USA in the contemporary world, Heidegger’s idea of the Germans as a “superior nation” served to justify the German “thrust towards the East” (Drang nach Osten) – i.e., the conquest of „living space“ (Lebensraum) and the extermination of the Slavic peoples. Heidegger’s philosophy is based on the totalizing principle of monopoly capitalism, „Destroy the competition!“, and on the expansionist nature of German capitalism, which regarded the conquest of „living space“ as an indisputable existential imperative. This gives vitality to Heidegger’s philosophy in contemporary Germany, where we are witnessing a dramatic biological demise of the Germans and the environment. It is the source of a totalitarian-integrative and expansionist political doctrine, which continues to live in the consciousness of the German petty bourgeoisie.

Heidegger never condemned the Nazi regime and its crimes primarily because he did not want to jeopardize the political foundations of his philosophy. Heidegger saw his philosophy as the indisputable source of the German self-consciousness. In spite of the defeat of the Nazi regime, the Germans were to preserve their self-consciousness through Heidegger’s philosophy as a “superior nation” preordained for the leading role in the world. For Heidegger, the defeat of Nazi Germany was but one of the defeats experienced by the German people in their fight for a “Greater Germany” and not a lost war for the future. Hitler’s defeat and the collapse of Nazism were not to call into question the strategic interests of German imperialism. We should not forget that Nietzsche’s idea of the “eternal recurrence” (“Die Ewige Wiederkunft”) is the alfa and omega of Heidegger’s conception of the future.

In his post-war correspondence with Marcuse, Heidegger tries to present the Germans as the victims of the Second World War. Indicatively, he does not make a distinction between the Nazi regime and the German people, particularly not between the ruling class of Junkers and capitalists, on the one hand, and German peasants and citizens on the other hand. This only goes to show the extent to which the Nazis managed to integrate the Germans into the Nazi regime and how much the Germans identified themselves with the Nazi regime.

Heidegger’s refusal to condemn the Germans for starting the Second World War and for committing atrocities, and his belief that the real victims of the war were actually the Germans, give rise to a political climate in contemporary Germany similar to the climate of the period following the First World War. The Nazi regime resulted from the myth that Germany was the victim of the First World War. Revanchism was used as a psychological instrument for fanaticizing the Germans and inciting war-mongering hysteria. Heidegger laments the fate of the Germans who were expelled from the East and thus creates a political atmosphere that should give rise to a new call for the German people to “return” to the East.

It should be pointed out here that the political instrumentalization of the idea of the Germans as a “superior nation” was based on the German defeat in the First World War; on the collapse of the German Empire; on the humiliation of the Versailles peace treaty; on Germany’s political instability; on the economic crisis of capitalism and mass unemployment… The “need” to conquer and exterminate the “lower races” came from the fear of survival created by capitalism and was a compensation for the misery experienced by “ordinary” Germans in their everyday life. The existential fear in contemporary capitalism that, with the growing destruction of the European nations and their ecosystems’, turns into an existential panic, represents the spiritus movens of a revived fascist barbarism.

Heidegger’s thought is a philosophical mask covering the racist ideology and Nazi practice. However, as it is multi-layered, it can appear in a “pure” philosophical form. That the mask itself acquired the form of a living image is the most important ideological quality of Heidegger’s philosophy. Heidegger’s followers therefore can easily “deprive” his philosophy of its political content. The Nazi ideology similarly had a magical philosophical veil interspersed with the expressions symbolizing the common human values: “peace”, “happiness”, “well-being”… The same can be said for the American “new world order”, covered with the blood-stained veil of “democracy”. Over and over again, bourgeois philosophy appears as a “humanist” mask over the criminal capitalist practice. Instead of trying to demystify a philosophy that turned into an ideology, bourgeois philosophers are turning an ideology into a philosophy.

To “defend” Heidegger against the charge of Nazism actually means to try to preserve the illusion of autonomy and thus of “objectivity” of philosophy – Heidegger being its most important representative in the XX century. Heidegger has become a mythological character “defended’” against the charge of Nazism by his reputation as the “last great philosopher”. If Nazi Germany had won the war, Heidegger’s philosophy would have demonstrated its true potential and Heidegger his true character. The entire philosophical content of Heidegger’s thought, creating the illusion of a political unbiasedness, would have then slid into one blood-stained Nazi swamp. Drawing on Heidegger’s philosophy, the Germans, as a “metaphysical nation”, would have become the “saviours of humanity” and their “Führer“ would have obtained a divine aura. Heidegger’s philosophy would have become the “Bible” of the Third Reich.

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović (Petrović)

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

 

 

Heidegger’s Fear of Death

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In his endevours to confront man as a libertarian being and emancipated citizen, Heidegger imputes a fear of death to man as the basis for his tragic existence. If man’s relation to existence derives from his own immediate experience, then the basis for his authentic existence is not a fear of death, but his experience of life. Death is merely an abstraction for man as long as he is not directly faced with it. Man can only reflect on death; he cannot  “live” it.

A fear of death does not derive from the experience of death, but from the experience of life. Since Heidegger does not postulate thinking, but rather experience, as the basis for determining authentic existence, the basis for  authentic existence in Heidegger is also not a fear of death, but a fear of loss of life. Man, therefore, has no need of a Being that would enable him to conquer his fear of death through an illusion of “eternal life”; he has need of life and, thus, of people with whom he can fight for his life and for humanity’s survival.

In order for man to experience his mortality in a tragic way, he must have a need to live and a vision of the kind of life that can satisfy that need. Rather than death, the basis of a tragic existence is the kind of life that does not enable man to realize his humanness, which means to becaming a human being. Tragicality does not appear in the relation with an “eternal” heavenly life, but in relation to the actual possibilities of man becoming a human being in this earthly existence, which involves faith in a humane world and a fight for such a world.

Tragicality does not have a fatal character. Man can abolish his tragic existence if he changes the life he lives, which means, if he abolishes capitalism and creates a world that will be the expression of his authentic human powers as a social and visionary being. With respect to that, man is willing to risk his life to prevent global destruction and create a world where people will be safe and free.

Instead of being based on a fear of death, life should be based on a faith in life. Not a fear of death, but a joy of living should be the pivot of man’s entire existence. By his insistence on a lonely individual’s fear of death, Heidegger deprived man of the joy of life and human warmth. He reduced man to a walking corpse.

Interestingly, in spite of being a great “magician” with words, Heidegger calls man a “mortal”, but it does not occur to him that, presupposing man as a living being, he might call him a “living-being”.  Indeed, man is a living being in his role as a life-creating being. Not only is he a living-being, he is also a life-creating being.

Death and man’s relation to death have a historical nature. Fears faced by man, just as the very nature of fearing, are historically conditioned.   Modern man’s existence and his perception of this existance are essentially different from those of the Ancient Greeks, and, by the same token, death and modern man’s perception of death are essentially different from those of Ancient man. Modern man experiences fear in an essentially different way from his Ancient counterpart, and, consequently, his response to fear is essentially different. Traditionally, man percieved and experienced the world as a divine givenness and all that befell him as the product of a divine will. Hence he did not have an activistic-changing, but rather a passive-submissive relationship to the world. A confrontation with that fear was manifested in the form of a submissive relation to divinities.

Thanks to the development of his cognitive and creative capabilities, modern man percieves and experiences himself as the creator of the world and hence perceives and experiences the world as his own creation. This is what his fear of death is based on. Rather than kneeling before gods, man confronts death through his understanding of the concrete nature of fear and by eradicating the underlying causes thereof. Instead of a religious-submissive consciousness, the dominant consciousness is active and changing, and is shaped into a libertarian-changing practice based on man’s life-creating capabilities as an emancipated natural and social being.

Modern man, as a self-conscious historical being, can relate to the Ancient world and can understand his relation to the fear of death as a specific, historically conditioned relation. While for Ancient man there is no  future, but only an idealised past, modern man perceives his existence and death relative to a future expressed in the idea of progress, meaning that he relates to death in the context of the emancipatory potential created in modern society, a possibility for the realization of a new world.

The abolishment of a speculative mediation between man and his existence abolishes the possibility of his critical-changing relation to the world, and reduces him to a non-human.  The abolishment of thought as a mediator between man and his existence leads to man relating to his existence through a world that devalues him as a human being. “A need for God”, for suffering, a fear of death instead of a joy of life – these are all psychological responses of a man deprived by capitalism of his libertarian and creative dignity, of an authentic sociability and thus an authentic humanness.

The ruling order, which conditions the nature of the world, has objectified man, who is to experience his existence without posing the question of the true human beingness, which is the basic postulate for the evolvement of the critical and visionary consciousness that will enable the creation of a world where man will bring to life his humanness. The ruling order insists on the abolishment of man’s reflective relation to his existence and the creation of the ideal of human-beingness man should strive for, imposing at the same time a philosophy that becomes the basis for man’s self-perception and a mediator between man and his existence. This philosophy springs from a world where a human is reduced to a non-human.

A typical example can be found in Kierkegaard’s thought. His philosophy is that of a desperate man, doomed by capitalism to solitary hopelessness. As a victim of capitalism, Kierkegaard seeks the meaning of life in a spiritual sphere deriving from his solitary misery. His philosophy is not based on reason, but on unreasonableness. “A need for God” is the product of the spiritual desolation created by capitalism and not a reasonable response to man’s suffering. “God” is the product of a desparete man’s imagination, one who cannot bring his humanness to life in the existing world. Kierkegaard’s philosophy does not purport to abolish the world that produces a miserable man; it rather builds a stairway beyond the clouds. And when the clouds disperse, man faces utter emptiness ruled by absolute nothingness.

Heidegger bases his notion of the tragic on man having an existential fear. Instead of pointing out concrete social causes of this existential fear, Heidegger imputes to man a fear of death, which becomes a projected sublimation of the concrete existential fear experienced by man on a daily basis. The existential fear in the contemporary world, however, springs not from a fear of death, but from a fear of capitalism. With capitalism’s increasingly ruthless confrontation with people and nature, the fear of capitalism has an increasingly devastating effect on man and leads to disastrous forms of social pathology.

The fear of losing the basic means of survival is a “Sword of Damocles” hovering over the heads of people whose livelihoods depend on their work and is the most important instrument in guaranteeing people’s submission. In developed capitalist countries, a majority of people live in debt slavery and in fear that they will not be able to pay off their loan and that their family will end up in the street or in prison. Every year, hundreds of thousands of people commit suicide because they cannot repay their debts.

In contemporary capitalism, man has a concern with a specific historical character: a concern over the survival of life on the planet and thus a concern over the survival of humankind. This concern is a product of capitalism and, with the growing destruction of life, it acquires an increasingly dramatical character. If humankind does not stamp out capitalism in due course, if it does not establish a production aimed at satisfying genuine human needs and does not start treating nature in a more rational way, this concern will turn into an existential panic, which, after a possible nuclear devastation, will reduce the world to an ash heap.

Since death is inevitable, Heidegger placed the tragic into a sphere beyond man as a libertarian and creative being. Man has no other option but to resign to his tragic existence and resort to illusions which are meant to compensate for his tragic life. Hence the need for the metaphysical as an active mediator between man’s “temporary” earthly existence and the “eternal” heavenly world. When man’s life is reduced to meaningless suffering, then the fear of death turns into faith in “eternal life”, producing a religious imagination that breeds illusory worlds.

By abolishing man’s rational relation to his existence and by reducing man’s relation to his existence to its experience, Heidegger separated the existence of man from the existence of humankind, creating the possibility for man to perceive his existence regardless of what is befalling humankind – i.e., to become an abstract being and in an abstract manner. For man’s existence to be concrete, it must be viewed in terms of the concrete existential situation in which the world finds itself.  In other words, man’s existence is inseparably bound up with the existence of the world. If man is to experience his concrete existence, he has to have an idea of the existential prospects of humankind.

A starting point for people’s mutual struggle against capitalism should not be a fear of death, but the growing destruction of life on the planet and the resulting concern for global survival. By becoming a totalitarian and global order of destruction, capitalism has placed all people on the planet in the same existential situation. We are all sailing on a ship heading for an abyss – regardless of our way of life and the way in which we relate to human and humankind’s existence. If man is not capable of reasonably assessing the increasingly dramatic existential situation brought about by capitalism, his relation to his existence will be based on a mental state leading to escapism and madness.

The euphory of consumerism is the most widespread and the most devastating form of escapism from humanity’s concrete existential situation. This escapism actually comes down to man’s cooperation in global destruction. It represents the most direct embodiment of the destructive spirit of capitalism. This escapism from destruction produces the destruction of man as a destructive being.

Death is not necessarily the source of tragicality. A fear of death is but one possible way in which man relates to death. The nature of one’s relation to death is conditioned by the nature of one’s life: the experience of death is conditioned by the experience of life. For a man who gambled away his life – death is the worst punishment; for a man who lives in hopeless misery – death is salvation; for a man who had a rich and creative life – death is a deserved repose…

In Heidegger, man does not have a conscious relation to death. Actually, a conscious relation to death and man’s sociability are the basic presuppositions of a fear of death. Tragicality is possible from the very moment man becomes aware of his mortality. A child is not aware that he/she will die, nor is an animal. They cannot have a tragic existence. On the other hand, man can have a fear of death only as a social being. Man cannot experience his death, he acquires an idea of his (human) mortality only through the death of another human being.

Heidegger abolishes man’s emancipated (reasonable) relation to death because such a relation questions the idea of the tragicality of human existence on which his philosophy is based. Death is the basic presupposition of the totality of human activism. Without death, there can be no wish or will to live. If man were immortal, life would be absolutely meaningless. A happy life is possible precisely because of its finitude. An „eternal life“ is the greatest curse.

As did Christian theologists, Heidegger imputed to man a fear of death. Death, by itself, is not the source of the tragic; it becomes such only if it involves man’s vanishing. Although this is implied by Heidegger‘s thought, eternity is not as sured through man’s creative practice as a social and historical being, but through co-existence with Being.

A fear of vanishing means that man fears he will fall into oblivion after death, which actually means that his life devalues him to such an extent that it is not worth mentioning. A worthless life makes man a worthless being. This devalued life wipes man from human memory by preventing him from leaving behind any legacy through which he might be remembered. He does not vanish as a human being, but as an individual who failed to become a human being. Death is tragical in so far as it finally deprives a man of the possibility of becoming human. By depriving him of life, death deprives man of the possibility to realize his humanness.

Those who are not capable of a great achievement in their lifetime will mark their lives by means of the grave. For a man who did not leave a trace behind him, the grave becomes the only proof of his previous existence. The grave is a life turned into stone. A destroyed man appears in the form of indestructible stone. The grave is not a trace of the joy of life. It is a stony misery.

As long as we remember our ancestors and respect their legacy – they are alive. As long as their creativeness permeates our life – they are alive. As long as their libertarian struggle inspires us to fight on – they are alive. As long as our noble ancestors can be discerned in our grandchildren – they are alive. As long as a tear appears in our eye when we look at a family photograph and see the caring look in the eyes of our dear parents – they are alive…

Not only does Heidegger not make a distinction between death and vanishing, he does not make a distinction between death and destruction,  either. What faces modern man as a concrete, natural, historical and social being, is not just a fear of death, but a fear of the destruction of humanity and all life on the Earth. Man is scared of a possible nuclear war; he fears climate change; he fears viruses that might wipe out humanity; he fears fanatics ready to kill billions of people. Instead of imaginary fears based on religious illusions, he has real fears produced by capitalism.

With capitalism becoming a totalitarian destructive order, man’s creative potential has turned into a destructive power in the form of science and technology. Instead of enabling man to provide for his existence and further develop his creative potential, science and technology, misused by capitalism, have become tools for global destruction and, as such, are a means for the production of an existential fear that is slowly becoming an existential panic.

By abolishing man as a social being, Heidegger overlooked the fact that what makes man human is his responsibility for the lives of others. An atomized man lacks the most vital life forces: love and respect.  As a human being, he has nothing to lose as he is deprived of the very thing that makes him human. Man is not miserable because he is mortal, but because he is discarded as a human being and cannot realize his humanness as a social being.  This moment is dominant in Kerkegaard: despair over being discarded. His tragic thought  is the hopeless cry of a desperate man lost in the icy land of capitalist nothingness. It should be pointed out here that truth is not to be found in philosophy, science, art and religion, but in the eyes of a child begging for help.

By reducing man to an abstract being and by abolishing reason as a mediator between man and his existence, Heidegger abolishes man as a valuable being. Man’s tragicality in capitalism is based on his evaluating himself through a value model that depreciates him as a human being and on his attempts to provide for his existence through an existential sphere that calls into question the very survival of humanity and nature. If we consider the nature of man’s existence as a concrete historical (social) being, which is the concrete existence of man in capitalism, then man’s very existence has an anti-existential character.

Heidegger’s accounts of man’s tragic existence lead us to the conclusion that a “happy life” in a miserable world is but a fake existence, specifically, an existence based on lies. Only by way of experiencing the tragic existence can man set out to find a way out of everyday nothingness – instead of resorting to the destructive hedonism offered by capitalism in the form of “consumer society”. However, Heidegger deprives man of faith in a happy life and thus of any possibility of happiness. A fear of death is deeply set in man’s soul and prevents him from being happy. The anxiety created by the fear of death is a primary effect on how man experiences his existence.  Instead of the joy of life, the fear of death becomes the basis of human self-recognition. Striving for a happy life leads to the oblivion of death and thus to the obliviation of Being.

For Heidegger, the true source of anxiety is death, rather than slavery, oppression, humiliation, increasingly threatened life, lack of love and respect, lack of possibility for man to realize himself as a creative and social being … Everything that shows the anti-libertarian, oppressive, exploitive and destructive nature of capitalism is removed from the scene. The reduction of man’s authentic existence to a fear of death and strivings for Being serves Heidegger by doing away with the peculiar human qualities that make man a libertarian and creative being.

The tragic existence based on a fear of death becomes a non-historical existence and as such an abolishment of history and man as a historical being. By declaring the fear of death the basis of human tragic existence, Heidegger reduces man’s tragicality to a non-historical givenness. The meaning of the tragic as a concrete historical phenomenon can be determined only relative to the concrete historical (social) possibilities of overcoming the tragic, which are based on the emancipatory legacy and life-creating potential of people as social beings.

If Heidegger’s notion of the tragic is viewed in the context of the ever more dramatic destruction of the world, it has an anti-existential character. Heidegger separates man’s existence from the tendency in the development of capitalism toward a destructive totalitarian order and, in that context, from the existence of humanity and nature in a life-creating totality. In view of the existential plight created by capitalism, the most important task before man is not to provide eternal life for the individual by way of an illusory heavenly realm, but to secure humanity’s survival by preserving the earthly life-creating sphere. The indisputable point of departure for the experience of human existence is not an abstract “Being”, but nature as a life-creating entirety. Nature as a life-creating entirety and man as an emancipated natural being and the organic part of nature as a life-creating entirety – this is the basis of human existence.

By becoming a destructive totalitarian order, capitalism compels man directly to confront the increasing threat of destruction. The capitalist zunami has swept through all doors. The smell of death is all around. No longer does man need science or philosophy to be aware of his dramatic existential situation. Man relates to his existence by experiencing it immediately as a growing threat to life on this planet. By becoming a global order of destruction, capitalism has abolished the duality between individual and common interests – between the existential interest of an individual and the existential interest of humanity. By increasingly threatening life on the Earth, capitalism threatens the life of the individual and at the same time the life of the whole of humanity. This is potentially the most important integrative link enabling humanity to unite and become a force capable of destroying capitalism.

It is up to us to initiate this vital historical turn. Instead of a cult of death, we should build a cult of life. Similarly to religious fanatics, guided by the idea of apocalypse, the ideologists of capitalism are creating an existential defeatism and, through an increasingly aggressive production of illusions, offering virtual cosmic worlds as the spaces for humanity’s future existence. The idea of eternity must be brought back from the illusory “worlds” and the vastness of the universe and placed within the framework of our earthly life. People should become aware that the Earth is our only home and the only place in the universe that gives us a chance to survive. This awareness should be the impetus for a will to fight for survival and thereby secure the future of humanity.

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović (Petrović)

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

 

 

Heidegger’s Philosophy – Introduction

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In order for a question to be authentic, it has to be a concrete historical question, which means that it should take into consideration the governing tendency in the development of the world. The question of the nature of Martin Heidegger’s philosophy should also be a concrete historical question. It is one thing when a question is asked in a blossoming field and quite the other when it is asked on the brink of the abyss. The concrete historical question is the following: Does Heidegger’s thought indicate the processes that lead to the destruction of man and nature, and does it offer a possibility to step out from capitalist civilization into a civilization of freedom, where man will live in harmony with nature?

Heidegger’s philosophy should be given a chance to appear as concrete historical thought in the relation of destruction to life-creation, i.e., destructive mindlessness to life-creating mind. Only relative to the mind’s libertarian and life-creating potential can a concrete historical meaning of Heidegger’s philosophy be perceived. Life on Earth is increasingly threatened and everything that possesses a life-creating potential should be included in the fight for survival. The essential criterion to determine whether a thought is reasonable is whether it contributes to the preservation of life on Earth.

A life-creating humanism should become the basis for the mind’s self-reflextion and, as such, the source of the self-consciouness of man as a life-creating being that, through his life-creating practice, should confront capitalism as a destructive totalitarian order. Guided by the life-creating mind and relying on a combative sociability, man should abolish the “consumer society” and “technical civilisation” and create a humane society and a life-creating civilisation, which will be the organic part of nature as a  life-creating totality. We are talking about a life-creating pantheism, which creates not only a new life, but a new world.

For Heidegger’s followers, his philosophy is the only framework within which the question of its essence and meaning is possible. Philosophical legitimacy of any discussion of Heidegger’s philosophy is acquired by its becoming a self-reflexion of Heidegger’s philosophy. “Fundamental ontology” becomes a synthesis of everything valuable that appears in the realm of the mind. It acquires the status of the only true philosophy and as such becomes the criterion used to determine the legitimacy of philosophical thought. „Fundamental ontology” becomes the other name for true mindfulness.

Bourgeiois theoreticians seek to analyse Heidegger’s thought departing from philosophy as an „objective“ sphere with a supra-historical character. Thus, Heidegger’s philosophy becomes an abstract thought. They use Heidegger’s philosophy to eliminate the visionary mind and, thereby, any possible spaces for the future. Heidegger’s philosophy heralds the end of history. At the same time, bourgeois philosophers appeal to Heidegger so that, in the shadow of his philosophy, they might obtain philosophical legitimacy for their own writings. They treat Heidegger in the same way Heidegger treats Being (Sein). To be in Heidegger’s „neighbourhood“ ensures „immortality“ in the world of philosophy.

The most important reason for Heidegger’s popularity with the bourgeois intelligentsia is that his philosophy enables the preservation of the elitist status of philosophy and thus the elitist status of the academic intelligentsia. His “fundamental ontology” becomes the philosophical “Holy Scripture”, whereas his “interpretors” become the guardians of the keys of wisdom. Bourgeois philosophy turned Heidegger into a myth and made his philosophy one of the key intelllectual pillars of Western civilization.

The production of the myth of Heidegger and other “great” philosophers serves to create a sectarian single-mindedness and elitist self-sufficiency of the bourgeois intelligentsia. Its members voluntarily accept the ghettoization of the mind at academic faculties and other exclusive „intellectual” domains, since it gives them “freedom” and a comfortable life. Such social position releases them from responsibility for the survival of life on the planet and from the risk that a struggle against the ruling order entails.

The representatives of traditional philosophy base their relation to Heidegger’s philosophy on existential apriorism. By becoming a totalitarian order of destruction, capitalism descredited that point of departure. The insistance on such an approach deprives Heidegger’s thought of a concrete historical dimension and turns the discussion of Heidegger’s thought into intellectual gymnastics with an abstract character. The traditional philosophical approach to Heidegger not only sterilizes the life-creating potentials of his thought, but also averts the mind from the basic existential issues currently facing humankind ever more dramatically. “Consumer society” is the final confrontation with a thought grounded in existential apriorism.

A demystification of Heidegger’s philosophy involves the emancipation of Heidegger’s thought from philosophy, which means discarding the philosophical veil under which his thought loses any concrete historical character and becomes abstract thought. Heidegger must be drawn away from the gloominess of philosophical gibberish into the light of history and treated as a concrete social being, whereas his philosophy should be treated as  concrete historical thought. Only then can we discover both its limits and its emancipatory potential. At the same time, a concrete historical discussion of Heidegger’s philosophy is possible only if it does not fall into the trap of his philosophical rhetoric. It is a labyrinth without exit, where, in hopeless wandering, the mind loses its life-creating power.

In addition to ancient Greek philosophy, Heidegger found the source and inspiration for his ideas in the philosophy of St. Augustine, Meister Eckhart, Franz Brentano, Fridrich Schelling, Friedrich Hölderline, Sørene Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Rainer Maria Rilke, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Wilhelm Dilthey, Edmund Husserl, in thaoism and other Far-Easterm religions. In order to grasp the true nature of Heidegger’s philosophy, we should also bear in mind the ideas and political movements relative to which Heidegger sought to build his philosophy.

Rather than in theory, a concrete historical source of Heidegger’s thought is to be found in the reality of life in Germany in the first half of the 20th century. Only when Heidegger’s philosophy is viewed in the context of historical events in which it occurred can we discover its true nature. We are talking about German expansionism; the crisis of capitalism and the First World War; Germany’s defeat and the collapse of the German Empire; the Munich Revolution and the development of the communist movement; the founding and fall of the Weimer Republic; the development of German revanchism and the rise of fascism; the “thrust toward the East” and the collapse of Nazi Germany… Heidegger’s philosophy was only possible on German soil.

There is no denying that Heidegger’s philosophy has an authenticity reflected not only in its specific parlance, but also in the specific treatment of basic philosophical questions. Essentially, Heidegger sought to answer the question of the future of Germany in the form of a philosophical treatise. That is, most importantly, what makes Heidegger a „German philosopher“ and determines both the self-consciousness of Heidegger’s philosophy and Heidegger’s notion of himself as a philosopher. Without such an approach to Heidegger’s thought, we cannot correctly answer the question of the political essence of his philosophy and, in that context, of the nature of Heidegger’s relation to Nazism.

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović (Petrović)

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

 

 

Fundamental Ontology

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Before the modern era, religion played the most important role in the contemplative life of European peoples. However, the development of artisanship and trade, the appearance of the first towns, the advancement of science and techniques, the appearance of the bourgeois intelligentsia and “The Gutenberg Galaxy”, as well as the development of schools and universities and civil political movements – all that created new sources of thinking. Along with the philosophical mind, the scientific mind started to have an increasingly important role in man’s thinking, throwing off the religious schackles. A new way of life and a new position of man in the world gave rise to a new art, which sought to create its own autonomous thinking. The thinking life in Europe became multi-faceted and multi-layered. It was now based on the capitalist division of labour, which separated manual from intellectual labour and institutionalised spheres of thought wherein people became alienated from their creative powers. At the same time, the dynamics of the thinking life were conditioned by scientific discoveries, conquests of new territories, technical inventions, industrial development, increased literacy of the general population, the introduction of a non-working time, which increased the number of readers and gave rise to the theater, opera houses, galleries and other cultural institutions.

The modern age saw a struggle between different world views, whereas the bearers of religious, scientific, philosophical and artistic thought sought to turn their respective fields into the sum total of all wisdom and the pillar of the thinking life. At the same time, under the influence of political pluralism, there appeared various schools of thought, each of them seeking to make its view the basis of all thought. Rather than being founded on the mind, this tendency to establish a domination of one world view over all others is the consequence of a struggle for power between political and economic centers, which instrumentalised the mind. This is what the idea of fundamentalism is based on. It does not strive for truth, which can be found only by opposing different views, but for the establishment of a centre of power with an indisputable monopoly on the „truth”.

Heidegger’s fundamental ontology is developed in a world divided into spheres that are alienated from and dominant over man. Without that division, a demand for fundamentalism would be meaningless. Fundamental ontology is a synthesized essence of separate areas of suprastructure, where the powers alienated from man are institutionalized, becoming the means by which the ruling order oppresses man and destroys nature. Heidegger does not seek to reconcile the divided world and give man back his powers, those taken from him in the form of alienated spheres of the capitalist suprastructure. He does not seek to abolish the sphere of philosophy by people becoming reasonable beings; to abolish the sphere of art by people becoming artistic beings; to abolish the sphere of technique by turning the conquered forces of nature into the means for satisfying genuine human needs and increasing the likelihood of human survival; to abolish class society by abolishing private ownership over the means of production and the repressive institutions of bourgeois society and by man becoming the agent of social life and the master of his destiny.

Fundamental ontology has an integrative character. It is based on an integrative ontological point, which is the source of thought and is indisputable. If fundamental ontology is the source of overall thinking, then it is not possible to pose an autonomous ontological question about its essence, which means to establish an autonomous critical standpoint, from which it may be brought into question. A discussion of the nature of fundamental ontology is possible as its self-reflexion.

The self-reflexion of fundamental ontology is based on all principal standpoints of thought being contained in it, and through it they obtain their ontological legitimacy. Self-reflexion of the ontological as ontological is possible only via fundamental ontology. In other words, the very nature of the ontological is conditioned by the nature of fundamentalism as a totalizing way of thinking. Every ontological approach that does not correspond to the totalizing intention of fundamental ontology is eliminated. The ontical excludes the struggle of opposites and thus the historical development of society, whereas ontology excludes the confrontation of opposites as a way of finding the truth. Fundamental ontology is opposed to the dialectic of history and the dialectical mind.

For an ontology to justify itself, it should be capable of posing the question of the truthfulness of fundamental ontology. Fundamental ontology is legitimate only as ontology, which means that the self-reflexion of fundamental ontology is possible only through the ontological. Since fundamentalism, as a synthetic-totalizing principle questions the essence of the ontological, fundamental ontology does not have the legitimacy of the ontological. In fundamental ontology, ontology has lost its ontological essence.

Fundamentalism as a principle of thought is opposed to the emancipatory nature of the ontological. It deprives ontology of the visionary. Since the ontological is self-conscious of the ontical, by abolishing the openness of the ontological towards the future, the ontical is deprived of an emancipatory self-consciousness. What should be affirmed instead of the principle of fundamentalism is the principle of ontological openness, which then enables the thought to soar into the future. This is the basic presupposition for the life-creating potential of the ontical to acquire a visionary self-consciousness.

Fundamental ontology is not a thought opening the horizons of new worlds; it is rather a strengthening of the foundations of the existing world. The fact that it is a “path” (Heidegger) does not mean searching for or opening new ontological standpoints, but rather projecting the given fundamental ontological point into the future.

Bearing in mind that the contemporary world is based on a totalitarian destruction, we can conclude that fundamental ontology draws thinking into the sphere of a totalizing anti-existential mindlessness. With capitalism becoming a totalitarian destructive order, the question of the truthfulness of fundamental ontology as a concrete historical question is possible only from an existental and, in that context, a libertarian standpoint.

Heidegger developed a new philosophy which should indicate the essence of human existence. Philosophy is abolished by philosophy. This contradicts Heidegger’s demand that all forms of mediation between man and his existence be abolished. Rather than by replacing all other philosophies with his so that his philosophy becomes the only mode of mediation between man and his existence, Heidegger seeks to abolish philosophy altogether as a mediator between man and his existence. His fundamental ontology does not strive to develop a philosophy, but rather represents the end of philosophy and the birth of the poetic. It does not only carry the seed of a new thought, but also of a new relation of man to his existence.

The essence of Heidegger’s novum is that man’s relation to being is not grounded in the thinking of being, but on its experience. Hence the self-reflexion of Heidegger’s philosophy is not possible through philosophy as  wisdom alienated from man, which as such is the criterion for determening its own truthfullness, but rather through a way of life based on immediate experience of a tragic existence and thus on co-existence with Being.

If the basis of its self-reflexion is not thinking but rather the experience of a tragic existence, why then fundamental ontology? Is it a source of wisdom needed for man to understand the nature of his tragic existence and the nihilism into which he is thrown so that new social conditions can be created enabling him to re-experience his tragic existence and return to Being, or is it but a means for eliminating the mind as a mediator between man and his existence?

Heidegger called into question philosophy as a mediator between man and his existence, and this is one of the most significant emancipatory possibilities of his thought. His analysis of the history of philosophy indicates that Post-Socratic philosophy, which mediates between man and his existence by reducing them to the objects of analysis, resulted in the “obliviation of Being”, and this led man to nihilism. Hence we should go back to Pre-Socratic Helada, where man was in unity with Being and where philosophy was a self-reflexion of Being. If this Heideggerian appeal is viewed in light of the fact that capitalism increasingly threatens the survival of life and in the context of a demand to eliminate all forms of mediation between man and world, which was insisted upon by Marx and Nietzsche, he can have not only an emancipatory, but also an existential significance.

Heidegger’s philosophy has a critical undertone and thereby offers  the possibility of being present and alive in a world that, inspite of falling deeper and deeper into existential hopelessness, does not seek to overcome capitalism and create a new world. It offers the possibility of being critical without crossing the „red line“ dividing a „politically correct“ thought from a thought that seeks to confront capitalism and step out into the future, where the emancipatory potential of a civil society might be realised. Heidegger’s philosophy is a critique of the capitalist reality that does not bring capitalism into question. It is an anti-visionary critique of capitalism.

Heidegger’s philosophy does not see itself as a concrete historical thought that is conditioned and thus qualified by the nature of the time in which it was developed. Heidegger determines the idea of “fundamental ontology” as the starting point for the self-reflexion of his philosophy. Heidegger’s undestanding of man and his existence, in effect, comes from philosophy as a separate area of the capitalist spiritual sphere. His thought is based on and framed by a capitalistically divided world. Although Heidegger sought to create an impression that his fundamental ontology has a supra-historical character, his philosophy belongs to the capitalist spiritual supra-structure alienated from man. With his philosophical rethoric, Heidegger built a labyrinth for the mind, which is but an addition to the capitalist ideological sphere.

Heidegger gave to philosophy an inadequate social and historical dimension. Ancient Greek philosophers did not determine the nature of the governing thought; it was the governing order that, indirectly and directly, conditioned man’s thinking and the nature of philosophy. The same goes for the modern age. The nature of the governing thought is not conditioned by philosophy, but by capitalism as a destructive totalitarian order. The capitalist ratio, which rules bourgeois philosophy, is but a rational manifestation of  destructive capitalist mindlessness. It corresponds with philosophy as a mystificatory skill that sterilizes the life-creating power of the mind and thus confronts visionary consciousness and changing practice. Traditional philosophy fits into this by turning concrete existential issues into abstract theoretical questions.

As with other “great philosophies”, Heidegger’s faces the issue of its logical consistency. Heidegger created specific terms that he sought to “fill up” with notions having a hierarchical order. To create the illusion that this pyramid of notions is non-contradictory, Heidegger had to resort to verbal juggling. As he developed his philosophy, he elaborated and changed the content of the notions with which he set out toward Olympus. On that increasingly strenuous and uncertain trek, the notions behaved as a flock of sheep that the shepherd cannot keep together. Some sheep fell off a cliff, some got lost, and the shepherd had to eat some of them in order to keep moving on. Ultimately, it turned out that the path Heidegger took led not to Olympus but to Auschwitz.

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović (Petrović)

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

„Night of the Witches“ – Day of the Idiots

The destruction of the mind is the ultimate consequence of the development of capitalism. This destruction of the human scentience is based on the following “logic” : live to work; work to shop; shop to discard; discard to enable the process of global destruction to proceed smoothly…

Capitalism turns people into “good for nothing” petty-bourgoises. Guided by the illusions created by the capitalist propaganda machinery, people become alienated from the processes that determine their destiny and thus the capitalist villains are able to become masters over their lives.

We are currently in the process of erasing the national and, thereby, historical self-consciousness. The world has turned into a container of “coca-cola” idiocy. “Mass events” destroy the mind and sterilise man’s change-creating energy. Sports stadiums and centers have become the cult venues of the modern world. It is no accident that robotised gladiators and circus players are paid enormous amounts for their performances. Instead of looking to the future, young people are fixated on football or basketball ball or the tennis racket or the blood stained boxer’s fist…

“New” forms of “entertainment” designed for the young appear on a daily basis and instead of drawing on cultural heritige, they are copying the “mass production” in the West aimed at destroying the national identity and creating a mondialistic idiocy. The importance attached by the media to manifestations such as “Halloween” (Night of the Witches) shows the extent to which the “public space” has become the property of the capitalist clans, those seeking to woo the West by destroying our culture and consequently eradicating our people from the historical arena.

The space given by the media to illiterate “prophets” instead of educated and wise people also shows the extent to which the mind is degraded in today’s world. This is the culmination of the development of “democracy”.

I remember a neighbor I once had, Granny Novka, who was a professional medium and an amateur  “Madame”. Her “predictions” turned out to be completely true. She, for example, correctly predicted the death of our friend, Auntie Ruzica and her husband, Uncle Bata. She also foresaw the death of our dog Luci and that the lavatory in her yard was going to collapse. She correctly predicted that she would get a certificate of virginity in spite of being married for 40 years. She foresaw that the local authorities would demolish her house, which in 1804 used to be the home of one of the first schools in Serbia, and that a local grocery would be erected in its place. She was also correct in saying that keeping pigs in the town and washing them on the Ibar river town beach would be banned. She predicted that she would be run over by a truck and that nobody would attend her funeral. And she was correct in that, too…

Today, Granny Novka would stand a good chance of becoming the president of the country. Considering the people in our political arena and the extent to which people have lost any hope of becoming the masters of their own destinies, many of them would look for a guiding star in the illiterate clairvoyant. We are now  “going through a transition,” anyway. What is the end of our journey? Granny Novka would surely know the answer. Once, when she was cross with me, she uttered the words that might become her most relevant prophecy: “You all shall perish!”. If we do not confront the capitalist barbarians, Granny Novka’s words may turn out to be a deadly curse.

“Mondialism” is a global ecocidal and genocidal order with a technocratic character, based on the destruction of nations and national cultures; on the eradication of historical, and thus, libertarian human self-consciousness; on the splitting of countries into “regions” so that the most powerful capitalist concerns can achieve their monstrous goals by bribing the local oligarchs and preventing an organised resistance by the oppressed working people… The true purpose of  “mondialism” is the transformation of the world into the object of exploitation and human beings into the means of a destructive capitalist reproduction. This is also the true purpose of the “non-governmental” organisations. They are an exclusive political instrument of the most powerful capitalist groups in the West meant for the destruction of nations, states and democratic institutions, which enable people to express their political will.

As a reaction to this mondialistic barbarism, we see a rise of national movements based on religious single-mindedness. They are also incapable of offering any meaningful solutions as they are all based on the destructive capitalist mindlessness. They are also led by the “horsemen of the apocalypse”. Both of these ideologies are based on the absolutized principles of private property and class society, and both fight against the emancipatory legacy of civil society and the idea of a future based on a life-creating mind and social justice. The only difference is that one of them promises “gardens of Eden” in the existing world, while the other promises them in heaven.

As far as “belief in God” is concerned, are we talking about the “God” of the Catholic church? Or the “God” referred to by the Nazis and featured on the belt buckles of the German SS divisions? Or the “God” of the Americans, whose fascistoid terror-bombing of Serbian villages and towns was cynically called “Merciful Angel”?

And what about the “omnipotent, omnipresent and merciful God” of the Christian colonists who, in the name of “God”, killed millions of American Indian children and almost obliterated the Indians from the Earth. What was the “omnipresent, omnipotent and merciful God” thinking when the American Christians, in his name, whipped African boys to death, castrated and hanged their fathers and raped their sisters and mothers? What was the “omnipresent, omnipotent and merciful God” doing in Auschwitz when, in his name, the German Christians killed the Jewish children in the gas chambers? What was the “omnipotent, omnipresent and merciful God” doing in Jasenovac, when the Christian Ustasha, in his name, butchered Orthodox Serbian children and gouged out their eyes – and while the children were praying for salvation? What was the “omnipotent, omnipresent and merciful God” doing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the American Christians, in his name, killed tens of thousands of children with their atomic bombs? What was the “omnipotent, omnipresent and merciful God” doing in Korea, Vietnam, Panama, Chile, Argentina, Serbia, Iraq, Syria, Lybia …. – where the Americans, in his name, killed millions of children, leaving behind only burnt villages and nuclear battlefields? Why doesn’t the “omnipresent, omnipotent and merciful God” respond to the pleadings of millions of children who are asking him for help, and why doesn’t he deal with the capitalist monsters who, in his name, are slaughtering the weak and destroying the world, which is the “work of God”?

As far as “paradise” is concerned, it does not seem to be such a wonderful place as they would like us to believe. No one can possibly be delighted by a “paradise” inhabited by the likes of Hitler, Musolini, Franco, Horti, Pavelic… If we add to the list millions of murderers who have been granted indulgences by the Christian churches so that they can enter the “gardens of Eden”, very little is left of the enthusiasm with which people refer to that “heaven”. Not to mention the prospect of “eternal life” in the company of murderers, which certainly cannot bring us “blissfulness”.

What are the choices offered to man after his earthly life?  Is it the “hell”, where he will be burning on a ceaseless fire? Or is it “paradise”, filled with monstrous killers? Is there a place in the universe where man can find peace? I wish there were a planet inhabited only by children. By dear, carefree, happy children… If only there were a place where children lived happily without being tortured, starved, raped and killed, I wouldn’t mind going to “hell” and endure the most  brutal torture. Could that place still be our planet Earth?

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović (Petrović)

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

 

The European “Refugee Crisis“

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The ongoing events in the Arab world are just another episode in the global war waged by the West against Russia. The crisis of the Arab world results from the attempts by the ruling capitalist clans in the West to instrumentalize the Muslims in their conflict with Russia.

The first move was the destruction of the Arab states that maintained friendly relations with Russia and had the power to oppose Western policy in the Arab world. The second move was the creation of radical Islamic military formations that would eventually be united under the command of the most powerful Islamic leaders. In that context, the Islamic state gained a leading position among the radical Islamic groups. Its first and foremost task is to eliminate all political forces in the Arab world that cooperate with Russia and penetrate the territory of the former Soviet republics with predominantly Muslim populations. Ultimately, the entire Middle Asia was to become a new Caliphate, which would, with economic aid and military assistance provided by the West, take the Caucasus away from Russia and turn millions of Russian Muslims living against their homeland. To turn Islamic Asia against Orthodox Russia is the primary strategic goal of the West.

Thanks to Russia’s decisive opposition this aggressive Western policy was defeated in the Arab world, and the consequences of the aggression have spilled over into Europe. The “refugee crisis“ arose from the failed attempt by the West to turn the Arab world against Russia.

Europe is a collaborator in the American policy to destroy the Arab states and peoples. The leading European politicians, guided as they were by the economic interests of the most powerful European companies, “failed” because they followed the American policy with docile enthusiasm, underestimating the danger of the crisis spilling over from the Arab space into Europe.

The „refugee crisis” revealed the true nature of Europe. Europe was not ready for the “refugee crisis“ because it was confronted with issues that it could not solve. The “refugee crisis“ is the result of the anti-humane and destructive character of European capitalism. If Europe were based on solidarity, the refugee issue would have been solved long ago. However, Europe is not based on solidarity, but on the ruling principles of monopoly capitalism: “Destroy the competition!“ and “Big fish devour small fish!“. Concentration camps, barbed wire, police, army, attacks on refugees, arson, fascist hysteria … – this is the only response to the “refugee crisis“ that a capitalist Europe, with its ongoing colonial spirit, can offer.

The “refugee crisis“ has brought to light the increasing existential crisis of the European peoples. A panic reaction to the coming of “Others“ indicates the dramatic biological demise of the European people. The spectacular screen of the “consumer society“ conceals the last act of the European existential crisis, with its fatal outcome. The “refugee crisis“ reveals that capitalism has brought the European peoples to the edge of the abyss.

The “refugee crisis“ once again shows that human problems cannot be solved humanely in an inhumane society. It is only in a humane society that human problems can be solved in a humane way.

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović (Petrović)

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

Dostoyevsky’s philosophy – a short essay

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Here we are going to say something about Dostoyevsky whose intellectual opus is an integral part of the contemplative soil from which Heidegger’s philosophy germinated. In order to understand the nature of Dostoyevsky’s thought, it is necessary to keep in mind the reality of life in the Russia of his time.

In the second half of 19th century, the advancing capitalist tide annihilated the customary, ethical and religious foundations of Russian society and questioned the tsarist order for its absolutist nature. Feudal Russia based its political stability on the fact that peasants were tied to the land. The abolition of serfdom (1861) and the development of industrial production resulted in the development of cities and the formation of an growing number of citizens and an enlarging working class. Millions of peasants became the work force of the new capitalist masters and were exposed to merciless exploitation. An increasing number of people live in existential uncertainty and misery. There are no political institutions that provide a possibility for channeling the growing discontent of the oppressed through legal political procedures. Political life is decimated by police terror, liquidations performed by the secret services and mass deportations to Siberia. Struggle against tsarist absolutism was based on the protest actions of the “Decembrists” and “Populists”, along with the assassination attempts by anarchist groups that tried to oppose State terror with their own fanatical voluntarism. The idea of socialism became the basis for the development of workers’ class awareness as well as for their political organization. University students became the seed bed for new ideas and the protagonists of political radicalism. In the Russia of the second half of the 19th century, political chaos dominated.

The development of capitalism uprooted “Russian man” from his previous spiritual habitat, and he was unable any longer to find the balance of traditional way of life between the church and the tsarist regime. The value-horizon of the old society and traditional social relations was vanishing in the deepening capitalist swamp, and the new value-horizons and institutions were not in sight. Russian man was thrown into a world where he had to struggle desperately in order to survive. In such conditions, he had no option other than to look for the basic defense of his human integrity within himself.

Dostoyevsky’s religious mysticism is a direct result of his losing faith in reason. In his philosophy, the conflict is established between reason, which has no specific social basis and, therefore, relativizes everything, and the necessity to act for the survival of man and the affirmation of his human existence. Since man could not rely on reason, which, per se, offers various solutions that only confuse him and keep him from action, Dostoyevsky offers a fulcrum in the form of a “free will” based on strong personality through which man should realize his life’s potential and meet his suppressed needs.

Freedom is, unarguably, contingent on restraint from threatening the freedom of others, is based on private property, and does not apply to liberation from the tyranny of the powerful or from the class order – as liberation from the existing world, towards a new one. With Dostoyevsky, too, “free will” does not imply man’s endeavor to oppose injustice and to assert his right to live in a just world, but it implies realization of man’s suppressed being, which is a product of the existing world. Dostoyevsky strived to offer freedom to man, degenerated in the capitalist mode, who is trying to realize his suppressed needs in a way dictated by the ruling order. A typical example is the gambler. The gambler cannot exist without gambling, and gambling is not possible without an order in which values generated by man are being alienated from him and turned into the power of destiny. Gambling, actually, is a tempting of the power that reigns in capitalism and, as such, represents a match with death.

In order to prevent life from turning into a merciless struggle between people motivated by unlimited “free will”, Dostoyevsky tries to establish an ethical awareness that would draw a boundary against felonious mischief. It is present in the idea of the “God”. Instead of believing in reason, faith in “God” was supposed to make possible the endurance of a society as a community of “Christian souls”. Thus, instead of the antagonism in reason, the antagonism between creative will and ethical (self)awareness is established. Kant tried to solve that problem in a formal logical manner, using an abstract citizen (a transcendental I), and Dostoyevsky endeavored to overcome that problem by using the abstract Christian. Kant’s ethical (self)awareness of the citizen is being replaced by a Christian ethical (self)awareness.

In Dostoyevsky there is a lack of self-reflection on human existence based upon the concrete historical situation of the society, meaning there is no self-reflection on the part of man as a concrete historical and social being. In his philosophy there is no visionary awareness and, in that context, no criteria upon which one can take action, bearing in mind the historical development of that order being established as a civil society. Dostoyevsky was not guided by the rational alternative based upon the emancipating potential of society that offers a possibility for the development of a visionary consciousness and the formation of political movements that would create a new world, but upon individual existence and religious mysticism. We are facing here an atomized member of a decaying aristocratic class who exists in a world which he does not understand in the context of its historical temporality, and, therefore, does not understand his own self as a concrete historical being. Dostoyevsky did not endeavor to create a new society, but to prevent decay of the tsarist order and of the ruling spiritual arc based on an Orthodox single-mindedness. He opposed progress based on a development of capitalism and creation of bourgeois society to the political stability of Russia. Dostoyevsky did not see Russia’s future in the most developed capitalist states, but in its own damnation.

Dostoyevsky did not belong to any social class. Therefore, all claimed him as one of their own. Impoverished nobleman, with no property and no money with which to become a capitalist, distant from the peasants and workers by his education and perception of life, soldier by necessity, rebel by nature, of weak health and even weaker integrity… HIs ability to summarize life’s contradictions within his characters brought everybody to see him as “their own writer”. Dostoyevsky was a political reactionary; however, his “Russian soul” was so ample that people from all social layers could find their sanctuary within it. Dostoyevsky did not shape his characters based on his philosophy, but his philosophy presents a synthesis of his characters’ philosophies. Life itself presents the source of his thought. This is what provides plausibility to his characters and vitality to his philosophy.

Translated from Serbian by Svetlana Djurić

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

 

Who was beaten by our basketball players?

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Another “World Championship” (2014, Spain) is over. Our athletes achieved another “great success”. Another “spectacular welcoming party for our champions” was staged. We experienced one more gush of euphoria…

What indeed happened? Who indeed are the actual winners and who are the losers?

Our ‘‘opponents’‘ are not the black children from the American ghettoes; nor the Brazilian youth who fled the muddy favelas; nor the Algerian boys from poor communities in French towns… They are but a decoy on which we can ‘‘sharpen our teeth’‘ and get relief from our own misery. The victories of ‘‘our’‘ gladiators and circus players on the sports grounds serve to compensate for our everyday defeats.

Sports shows are nothing but a spectacular sham.

The oppressed working ‘‘masses’‘ got another illusion, another bone to chew on, whereas those who rule and plunder bought themselves time to continue their criminal activities in the shadow of sports spectacles. The real winners are the capitalists, corrupted and alienated politicians, mafia gangs who hold a grip on sport… Athletes are paid by those who rob workers of their money, by those who are our masters…

To claim that victories of our athletes at international sports competitions boost the morale of our people is utter nonsense. Victories at sports competitions have never incited the oppressed to fight for their human and civil rights. On the contrary: victories at sports fields only served to strengthen the position of the ruling class. This is the main reason why global rulers are so interested in increasing the number of increasingly bloody sports spectacles. The dissatisfaction of the oppressed working layers is thereby diverted and workers and their children are turned into a depoliticised ‘‘crowd’‘. It should be pointed out that the stadium was created in the second half of 19th century in England, when the workers won the 8 hour working day and their non-working time had to be ‘‘colonized’‘ in order to prevent them from becoming class-conscious and from fighting for their workers’‘ and human rights.

When the dazzling dust of the ‘‘victorious’‘ euphoria settles down, people will face the true results of the ‘‘great sports victory’‘: the few remaining bookshops will be closed and new betting shops opened, whose toxic stench is rotting our young generation; basking in the ‘‘sporting glory’‘ and carried away by dreams of ‘‘big money’‘ an increasing number of young people will discard the book and ruin themselves at the sports grounds; instead of schools and theatres, new, ever more spacious stadiums and sports centres will be built – for an increasing number of impoverished people…

Over one fourth of Serbian population is illiterate and almost a half has only primary education. The sad truth is that ‘‘our intelligentsia’‘ is not bothered by the fact that the entire Serbian culture receives less money from the state than a ‘‘better’‘ basketball or football player receives for a contract – the money that will not be taxed!

Instead of fighting against fake ‘‘opponents’‘ on sports fields, we should fight against our real opponents. Those opponents are capitalist gangs and politicians who are ruining our country; who have sold Kosovo; who are paving the way for secession of other parts of our territory; who are pushing us into the European Union and NATO; who allow American capitalists to spray us like insects and contaminate our soil and water; who are ruining the family, culture, our libertarian dignity; who are trying to reduce our Mother-Serbia to a submissive whore of capitalist clans who govern Europe and America…

They are our true opponents and they are the ones we should fight against!

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Petrović (Todorović)

 

Novak Djokovic’s Blood Money

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Serbia is facing collapse and the Serbian population is vanishing… Criminal gangs are robbing our people of factories, mines, soil, water… The police are beating workers… The army lacks boats and lighting equipment… Billions of euros are transferred on an annual basis to private accounts abroad… The final act of amputating Kosovo is under way… Third-rate politicians from the West come to Belgrade only to impose ultimatums… A vast majority of young people wants to leave the country… But who really cares? Judging from newspaper reports and TV programs: nobody. The paramount concern is if tennis star Novak Djokovic won and how much he “earned’”.

In August of this year (2014), the “Novak Djokovic Foundation” invested a couple hundred thousand in refurbishing kindergartens and nursery schools. Another “humane” action of “our great champion” that was met with widespread public support. What is the hidden agenda behind these “humanitarian” acts?

Our “top” athletes, led by Djokovic and Divac, practice a method that has long been used by the plundering “elite” in the West: they use the plight of working people who have been deprived of their rights to create the illusion of being “benefictors” and to burnish their public images. No man with self-respect would take advantage of the plight of others for his own self-promotion. He who really wants to help, does good without ostentation.

In 2013 alone, Novak Djokovic “earned” over 27 million USD either from tournaments or endorsements. There is no record that, as a Serbian citizen, he has paid any taxes in his own country. How much do Novak Djokovic and other “top” athletes, coaches and sports managers owe to our country? Over the years it must amount to hundreds of millions of dollars and euros.

What is our country doing? Why are tax-evaders from the world of professional sport above the law? Is it about pleasing the masses or do top athletes systematically bribe politicians, public officials and journalists?

How is it possible that a “top” tennis player can earn over 2 million USD for winning a tournament? In order to earn 2 million USD, a worker with an average salary must work for 500 years! Djokovic and his “colleagues” from the tennis world “earn” this amount for a couple of hours of “playing”. Why are players in the tennis circus paid amounts that workers can only dream of? What social values do they promote? Their actual “work” comes down to hitting a ball back and forth over a tennis net.

The technique of play in sport, instead of being emancipatory, has an entertaining and circus character. It serves to produce a “spectacle” meant to integrate people into the ruling order. Instead of developing genuine human powers, it develops forms of manipulation and destruction of people as cultural and natural beings. By mastering the technique of play, an athlete is in conflict with his spiritual and playing being. The more he improves as a tennis player, the more he is degraded as a human being. He turns into a peculiar specialty-idiot, both in mental and physical terms. By becoming a “tennis star”, a man is alienated from his humanness.

In order to understand the true nature of “top” tennis, we need to look at those who pay the world tennis “elite”. They are, above all, Bill Gates’s “charitable” foundations, “Monsanto”, the largest world banks, “Puma”, “Adidas”, “Coca-Cola” … Djokovic, Nadal, Federer – they are but the clowns for the most powerful capitalist clans and, as such, are the trademarks of contemporary capitalism. They are the stormtroopers of the “new world (American) order” that is annihilating humankind and all life on this planet. ‘Top” athletes belong to the 1% of the titled global “elite”. Yachts, grounds and mansions, exclusive holiday resorts, accommodations in luxury hotels, large sums on their accounts in Western banks…. They are the organic part of the wealthy “elite” that rules the world. Djokovic’s “distinctive quality” is his posing for billboards on buildings and erecting monuments to himself across Serbia!

The increasing amounts paid to tennis players are in direct proportion to the increasing misery of a large number of the world’s workers. “Sport is the cheapest spiritual food for workers – and it keeps them under control!” – this is the golden rule of sport created by Pierre de Coubertin – the official “father” of modern Olympism. Athletes do not exemplify social values; they rather depoliticize the oppressed and thus serve to preserve the current order.

Rather than being the “representatives of their nations”, tennis players are an elite corps for the most powerful capitalist corporations, which use sport to destroy national cultures and national-liberatarian self-consciousness. Sport is the crown of a “mondialistic” worldview, and modern Olympism is the chief and most important mondialistic religion. Tennis players are running billboards for the largest capitalist corporations and are therefore the breeders of a consumer mentality – the driving force of a “consumer society” that increasingly threatens the survival of humanity.

The money “earned” and “donated” by Novak Djokovic is blood money taken by capitalist criminals from workers and used to pay mercenary athletes to “brainwash” the oppressed and turn them into obedient idiots.

To “support” Novak Djokovic and his tennis cohorts actually means to help the executioners of humanity finish their monstrous “work”: to deliver a final blow to the critical-changing mind and annihilate life on this planet.

 

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Petrović (Todorović)

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

 

Ukraine crisis – Opening of pandora’s box

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„The truth is the totality.” – this proposition was central to the creation of Hegel’s own system of dialectics. It enables us to realize the true nature of the Ukrainian crisis.

Essentially, the crisis in Ukraine is an expression of the contemporary existential dilemma foisted on the world by the American “New World Order”. The nature of that order conditions the relation of the West to Russia and, in that context, the relation of the West to Ukraine and the Ukrainian citizens. America caused the crisis in Ukraine in order to enforce a “resolution of the crisis” that will enable it to achieve its strategic interests with respect to Russia and Europe. The real objective of America’s “resolution of the crisis” in Ukraine is to create a crisis on the European continent that will lead to the weakening of both Russia and the leading European countries and the strengthening of America’s position in both military and economic terms. The creation of a military corridor around Russia and the isolation of Russia from Europe and, at the same time, the integration of Europe into the American economic system – these are the two strategic goals that directly affect the way in which America is trying to “resolve” the Ukraine crisis. While Russia wants Ukraine to be a bridge of cooperation between Europe and Russia, America seeks to turn Ukraine into an insurmountable barrier between Russia and Europe.

As far as economic relations are concerned, it is not about the current economic exchange between Europe and Russia, but about the extraordinary opportunities for the development of economic cooperation between Russia and Europe. America is heading for economic collapse. The integration of Europe into the economic machinery of the USA would restore America’s economic power and, at the same time, inhibit Russia’s economic expansion, which is, largely, based on economic and scientific cooperation with Europe.

If we analyze the effects of American foreign policy during the last twenty years, we can see that America, with its “humanitarian interventions”, is not striving to conquer, but to destroy countries and peoples. America’s destructive practice is conditioned by the fact that America is no longer capable of ruling the world. It is no longer the most powerful global economic power, and very soon it will no longer be the most powerful military power. Russia, China, India, Brazil, Belarus, Iran, South America, Venezuela, Cuba…. – these are the countries that are successfully opposing American imperialism. Today, America’s actions resemble those of Nazi Germany after its defeat at Stalingrad and Kursk, when Hitler became aware that his army could not defeat the Red Army and destroy the USSR. The Germans resorted to “scorched earth” tactics. Led by the most loyal of Hitler’s generals, Walter Model, the Germans destroyed 70 000 villages, 1710 towns, 2766 churches and monasteries, 4000 libraries and 427 museums, 32 000 factories in the Soviet Union – and killed over 27 million of its citizens. What the Nazis and the German army did in the USSR, the NATO army and American mercenaries reprised in Serbia, Bosnia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, Syria…

What drives America to act in such a destructive manner is the increasing existential crisis that threatens the very survival of the USA. The fact that America has lost its position as a global “leader” is inevitably reflected in the instability and the dim future of American capitalism. Just as Hitler’s regime managed to ensure the support of the German people by conquering new “living space” (Lebensraum), the American regime can ensure the support of Americans so long as they provide them with a sufficiently high standard of living by plundering the entire world. The American “New World Order” is an enormous octopus, whose tentacles are sucking the life force out of humankind and nature. Once they are chopped off, America will face an economic and general social crisis that will lead to its collapse. Powerful Americans are well aware of that. Along with the weakening of America’s position in the world, the American regime, under the guise of a “War on Terrorism”, is abolishing basic civil rights in the country and turning it into even more of a police state. There are over 3200 secret agencies in America, with over 850 000 agents. There is a special army with hundreds of thousands of soldiers, equipped with state-of-the-art weapons and ready to kill millions of American citizens. The private prisons are popping up all over the USA…

The true nature of Western “democracy” is shown by the political groups used by the West in pursuing its global interests. In Ukraine, there are the “Banderites”, who are openly proud of their fascist ideology. Through their political instrumentalisation, the West reveals the true nature of the “democracy” they are trying to install in Ukraine. The monstrous crimes of the “Maidanians” in Odessa and other parts of Ukraine, supported by the West, show that, in essence, there is no difference between Hitler’s and the contemporary “Thrust to the East” (Drang nach Osten). The destruction of the Slavs, which above all means the Russian people, and the occupation of their living space, is the basic and blatant goal of the West. That is why their loyalty to America is primarily expressed in their animosity towards Russia. Those who refuse to turn against the Russian people are proclaimed traitors and must be annihilated. Under the leadership of Slobodan Milosevic, Serbia refused to become Russia’s enemy and was therefore destroyed by sanctions and merciless bombing, with President Milosevic being kidnapped by Serbian traitors (paid by America) and murdered in The Hague.

As far as the American “help” to the Albanians in Kosovo is concerned, the Americans “rescued” the Albanians from the Serbs by bombarding Kosovo with over 30 000 depleted-uranium projectiles – a destructive force equal to 450 times that of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Thousands of Albanians and their children (along with Serbs and their children) died of leukemia and other diseases caused by the American bombing. Other parts of Serbia are also polluted by leftover radioactivity and carpeted with unexploded fragmentation bombs. However, the Russian people did not let Serbia down. President Putin sent special troops to Serbia and, while the Americans were dropping bombs and killing the Serbian people, the Russians were removing the bombs and saving their lives!

What can Russia expect from the European Union? The ruling European political circles equate Europe with the “European Union” in the same way the Nazi ideologues declared Europe to be under a “New European Order”. It is exactly those who claim Europe is a community of equal nations and who insist on its emancipating heritage, who are acting as the bitterest enemies of the “European Union” by turning it into a vehicle for the largest European corporations to destroy the emancipating heritage of the European nations. The so-called “European Union” is being built upon the delusion that by joining the “Union” all European nations would be assured “prosperity and a better life”. It should be remembered here that the main goal proclaimed by the Nazi’s “New European Order” was to make “all European nations happy”! The “European Union” is an anti-human and destructive order based upon the ruling principles of monopoly capitalism, “Big fish devour small fish!” and “Money does not stink!”; its ruling political sphere does not provide opportunity for the expression of citizens’ political will, but represents a political form of the domination of capital over people; the entire institutional, normative and propaganda aspects of that order are directed at the destruction of the cultural and libertarian self-consciousness of the people and towards their integration into a spiritual orbit of capitalism at the level of a ‘idiotized’ laborer-consumer “mass”.

The “European Union” is not a “democratic community of nations”, but a form of integration of the European multinational corporations in their fight against the American corporations – which use the American state as a vehicle for the achievement of their goals at the global level. The “European Union” is not based upon the emancipating traditions of European nations, but upon the imperialist traditions of European capitalism. It is not a humanistic goal but a means by which the most powerful capitalist corporations achieve, through economic and political “measures”, the very same ends that Hitler was expected to achieve for German capital – but through militarism. It is a transitional phase in “European development” that leads towards the creation of a new (ecocidal) fascist order. Appropriately, this violent, capitalistically established “integration of European nations” causes nationalism and racism to thrive as a response to people’s being denied their basic human and civil rights – which is a prelude to new, increasingly dramatic clashes that will develop based on the inherent logic of monopoly capitalism, and also based on an increasingly contaminated natural environment and on the biological degradation of these European nations. This ecocidal capitalist terrorism unavoidably inspires a nationalism that is no longer based on the struggle to obtain and hold a job or to achieve and maintain a decent standard of living, but on the struggle for mere survival. It becomes more and more obvious that with “the uniting of Europe”, instead of engendering optimism and an atmosphere of tolerance, which would correspond to the “humanist ideals” exalted by politicians, it is the citizens’ fear of the future and their intolerance that are growing. “Humanist speeches” cannot conceal the growing crime, unemployment, dissolution of the “welfare state” and its inherent social protections, devastation of environment, drug abuse, violence, suicide, fanaticism, the flourishing of Satanist sects and of fascism, the breaking up of the family, the growing number of orphaned or abandoned children, human-trafficking, especially of children, for sexual abuse or organ “harvesting” (in England, alone, more than 40,000 children “disappear” annually), the spreading of AIDS and other diseases that decimate the poor, loneliness that has achieved epidemic dimensions…

A “United Europe” generates racism, similar to that existing in the USA. Eastern European and Balkan nations are developing a reputation as “nations without culture”, which suggests they are “lesser creatures”. The languages spoken by the Gastarbeiter (“Guest Worker”) population are not being perceived as part of the European cultural heritage, but have become a motive for discrimination. In what has become a mass phenomenon, migrant laborers keep their children from learning their own mother tongues in order to mask their origins and avoid humiliation. Bearing in mind that an insignificant number of children of migrant laborers achieve a college or university education, it becomes clear that depriving them of their mother tongues amounts to the obliteration of their cultural being, which condemns them to being part of the “dirty labor force” – to perform the hardest and most dangerous jobs. Within the “European Union” one can clearly discern the racist pyramid of power based upon economic, political and military supremacy: Germany, France and England are on the top; Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium… are below them. The Balkan peoples are located at the very bottom of the pyramid. In the “United Europe”, the place reserved for them is the same one African-Americans occupy in the United States of America. On the “road towards Europe”, the Balkan nations will lose their own historical (cultural) self-consciousness, along with their libertarian dignity, in order to become a labor force of garbage collectors labor force, while the Balkans will become the septic tank of Europe. The Balkan nations are ordered to renounce those libertarian myths that are the basis of their historical and libertarian self-consciousness, while, at the same time, they are expected to cling to the myth of “Europe” as a “community of free nations”: libertarian myths are being replaced by colonial ones. The “uniting of Europe” in accordance with the American model, a model based upon the private interests of multinational corporations and their struggle for supremacy, leads towards the extinction of “nationalism”, which translates into the nullification of the cultural heritage of European nations along with their right to make sovereign political decisions. The USA is populated by the dregs of European and other nations degenerated by the “American Way of Life” and the Coca Cola “culture”. In Europe, we think of historical nations as being those who associate their national, civil and cultural identities with their own countries, their own native homelands, and the freedom for which their ancestors fought. This country is their vital and spiritual birthplace and the source of their human self-image.

“European identity” cannot be built on a formal set of principles (such as a constitution), but must be based on a libertarian tradition and on the cultural heritage of European nations. Europeans must be judicious and resolute, must defy the ongoing destruction of cultural heritage and even of life in general; they should, through political struggle, turn the objectively accumulated potential for creation of a new world based on reason and freedom into a realistic potential for liberation. Europe should become a garden where the flowers of all European cultures flourish together. It is of no importance which flower is “bigger”, but that each of them gives forth its own particular scent. It is about the implementation of the leading ideas of the French Revolution, ideas that are not only humanistic, but have become basic existential principles. Only based upon a struggle for the new world can the emancipating legacy of the European nations be achieved. Europe will overcome the growing social crisis by creating a new world – or it will collapse. For the European nations, acceptance of the “American way of life” is suicide.

The current propaganda machinery in the West created a myth that Europe and America are “friends”. Spying and eavesdropping on European citizens by the Americans has reached such monstrous proportions that very few people still cherish the illusion that America is a “friend” of Europe’s. Considering the fact that America wants to use Europe as a launching pad to attack Russia, America is clearly Europe’s deadly enemy. The increasing popularity of President Putin in Europe is primarily based on the increasing number of Europeans who have come to realize that Europe cannot get rid of American tyranny unless it relies on Russia. It is therefore not surprising that a majority of Germans support President Putin’s policies towards Ukraine.

The conflict between the West and Russia over Ukrainian territory is not just of a military and economic nature. It is, at the same time, a conflict between two concepts of the world, two concepts of nature, humankind, social relations, the future… American domestic and foreign policies are based on the interests of the largest capitalist corporations. Their aim is to destroy the institutions that restrict their expansion and to create an “international order” based on the ruling principles of monopoly capitalism: “Big fish devour small fish!” and “Destroy the competition!”. We are, actually, dealing here with a “globalism” that seeks to destroy nations and turn them into a worker-consumer horde, with their living space and national histories becoming the objects of economic exploitation and ecological devastation. The biggest capitalist corporations are destroying nation states in order to eliminate any forces capable of restricting their power. In that context, they are introducing the concept of “regionalization” to try and break up the existing states and create capitalist protectorates that will not be capable of opposing the totalitarian domination of the most powerful capitalist groups. The “regionalization” amounts to a “feudalization” of the existing states. Instead of allowing the citizens to have a say in their politics, the “development of democracy” has had the opposite effect: through economic, political, scientific, technical, media, pharmaceutical, military and other means, fewer and fewer capitalists have more and more opportunities to establish unchallenged power over the people – who are thus reduced to the abstract status of “citizens of the world” – and to become the masters over life and death. People are left with one resort: a futile struggle, at regional and local levels, to ameliorate the consequences of the criminal practices of the most powerful capitalist corporations. In view of this “regionalization”, the fatal effects of attempting to disintegrate existing states become obvious. In order to prevent humanity from uniting its efforts for the preservation of global life, the most powerful capitalist concerns are creating separatist hot-spots and, thus, provoking conflicts between national, ethnic and religious groups, which further weakens the global anti-capitalist front and humanity’s struggle for survival. Here it should be added that, along with capitalist corporations, a capitalistically conditioned life-style has also become a totalizing power that destroys national cultures and characteristics, turning entire nations into “idiotized” working-consuming “masses” and the world itself into a capitalist concentration camp. Even those people who are not under the immediate control of the West, but who have accepted the “consumer” way of life, are losing their cultural identity and are being absorbed into the “Coca-Cola culture”, the most authentic manifestation of globalist “idiotism”.

It is no accident that Putin’s efforts to preserve the humanist heritage of Orthodox Christianity and make it one of the most important spiritual pillars of Russian society met with such harsh reactions from anti-Russian politicians in the West. It is, actually, an attempt to prevent the fatal impact of the “consumer” and “technological” cultures on social development and to restore traditional values, which for the Russian people was the principal unifying factor even in the most difficult of its historical periods. At the same time, the struggle for the nation’s survival and emancipation involves a struggle to preserve the emancipatory heritage of civil society and national culture, the ancient spiritual legacy, the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, classical German philosophy and Marx, the philanthropic movement, workers’ struggle for a just society and the October Revolution, anti-colonial and anti-fascist struggles, as well as the struggle for women’s liberation…

Why did the Russian law meant to prevent homosexual propaganda among young people meet with such harsh criticism in the West? Contemporary capitalism is destroying “traditional humankind” and thus the family and the genders. The ruling Western regimes are not capable of stopping the biological demise of the European nations. Fear of the possibility of disappearance is increasing. In Russia, there is a widespread awareness that a struggle to preserve the family and, thus, the biological continuation of society is the corner stone of the nation’s survival. Instead of “Homosexual rights”, Russia attaches primary importance to the right of children to have parents and a happy childhood. The struggle to preserve the family and the nation’s biological survival is one of the reasons for increased support of Russia by Western “traditionalists”.

As a military power, Russia is the biggest obstacle to the West in its attempt to destroy billions of “surplus” people on the planet. The ever-more intensive destruction of life leads towards a radicalization of their genocidal politics: destruction of an increasingly large number of people becomes a precondition for the survival of an ever-smaller number of people. Within that context a theory of the “golden billion” has been established which represents a strategic landmark for the political practice of the most developed capitalist countries. This ecocidal capitalist craze generates a growing fear for survival and, consequently, because of this fear, establishes conditions for the radicalization of political decisions and political action. The use of nuclear and neutron bombs, artificial viruses and other lethal means become a legitimate “defense” tool. In almost all reports produced by Western “experts”, “overpopulation” of the planet is “the greatest threat to the survival of mankind”. Fear for survival is being redirected towards those nations of the world that “procreate excessively”, thus jeopardizing the survival of all. The solution is being imposed by itself: the destruction of billions of the “superfluous” is essential for the survival of mankind. Those who unsparingly destroy nature and exterminate peoples become “saviors of mankind”. The West has ample experience with destruction of nations: the extermination of the North American Indians by American capitalism, and the Chinese and the Australian Aborigines by British imperialism – show the Western “traditions” of eliminating the “surplus” of humanity. At the same time, based on the American “New World Order”, “globalism” has provided the conditions for establishing new “national-genocide” plutocracies tasked with destroying their own “excessive population”, by the application of economic and other measures. The further development of capitalism will be paid for by billions of innocent people, by a growing number of wildlife species that are facing extinction, by the entire living world… Eventually, it all serves to enable several million of the mentally degenerated “rich” to continue “enjoying” the material wealth created for them out of ashes and blood, a tolerance for which is being provided by the use of police, mafia and military tyranny, and the illusions created by the entertainment industry. The fanatics of capitalism are the worst sorts of terrorists: they are destroying life on Earth.

Considering the extent of the devastation of the natural environment, it is no wonder that more and more people in the West see the vast Russian expanses as essential to humankind’s survival. Eurasian territory contains 75% of the world’s natural resources. Siberia is the treasury of humankind, and the Russian people, through their clever policies, will preserve Siberia for future generations. The fact that Russia has become the pivot for the struggle against “Monsanto” and other American corporations seeking to destroy organic crops and traditional ways of producing healthy food is of primary importance. Bearing in mind the influence of these corporations on the ruling regime, it is no wonder that the American power elite perceive Russia as their deadliest enemy.

Russia’s returned to its rightful position as a global power capable of influencing the world’s destiny is the most important moment in contemporary history. Just as the victory of the Red Army at Stalingrad and its unstoppable campaign against fascism inspired many nations to fight against colonialism and imperialism, the rise of Russia provides hope that contempory fascism, in the form of the American “New World Order”, will finally meet its demise, and creates a possibility for the integration of all free European and Asian peoples from the Atlantic to Vladivostok.

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović (Petrović)

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

 

The true picture of sport – The death of Birgit Dressel

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Over twenty years ago, in April 1987, a twenty-six year-old heptathlete, Birgit Dressel, died in West Germany. An investigation was opened at the request of her parents. The findings of the criminal investigator and the medical investigating committee in charge of establishing the cause of death stripped away the veil of deceit with which the sports officials and politicians misled the domestic and international publics. The truth came to light: just as with the Eastern European countries of “real socialism“, the countries of the capitalist West created their own sports industry of death that would mutilate and kill thousands of young people. For the first time in the history of sport the world had the chance to gain a detailed insight into the “documents of horror“ (“Der Spiegel“) that had been, in all places where “world-class sport“ is nurtured, carefully hidden from the public gaze. (1)

The story of the tragic death of Birgit Dressel is a warning to young people carried away by dreams of “athletic fame“, to parents, doctors, teachers of physical education and all those who, as victims of these illusion of “world-class sport“, can contribute, by their idolatrous relation to the mania over record-breaking and the blind promotion of the idea that “sport is the best ambassador“, to the development of increasingly cruel mechanisms for the destruction of young people in sport. The death of Birgit Dressel clearly showed that the road to “optimal results“ had become the road to self-destruction. Birgit died in April of 1987, but her death is still present as it reflects the fate of an increasing number of young people who have become the victims of “world-class sport“. At the same time, the epilogue to her death indicates the organic link between the sports mafia and politics: nobody was punished, nobody was held accountable. The murderers in white uniforms, protected by those who gave them orders from the world of politics and capital, continued their criminal activity. The desperate cry of Birgit’s mother: “They did not try to help my daughter, they finished her off!“most dramatically speaks to the true nature of contemporary sports medicine. An even greater irony is that, immediately after Birgit’s death, Willi Daume, then the President of the National Olympic Committee of West Germany and one of the heads of the international sports mafia, nominated Armin Klümper, the man who developed the doping mechanisms in West Germany to monstrous proportions and who was directly responsible for Birgit’s death, as the Olympic team physician! (2)

Daily doses of tablets taken by athletes are proof that medication has become indispensable in achieving victories and breaking records: they start with harmless pills, only to continue with real medicines, usually against inflammation and pain, which are always given by prescription. In the end, man becomes the slave of devastating, legally prescribed, doping drugs. “Birgit is the victim of the pharmaceutical industry!“ – said Birgit’s father after her death. International competitions are regularly visited by international drug peddlers, many of whom carry a doctor’s title along with their sample cases full of the newly developed products of the doping industry. They come to recruit the young. The practice is tacitly accepted by sports associations. In such a state of affairs, the struggle against doping is doomed to failure.

The tragic death of Birgit Dressel forced people like Willi Daume to admit: “I dread to think that athletes, for example, take anabolic to increase muscle mass, while in a number of countries the use of anabolic steroids in livestock farming is forbidden.“ In spite of that, the main authorities on sports medicine in the West continue to recommend anabolic to all those who want to become muscular “macho men“ and “Amazons“ in order to achieve “optimum results“.

Nineteen eighty-six was a successful year for Birgit Dressel. She managed to move up from 33rd to be ranked no. 6 in the world. She was preparing for the light athletics world championship in Rome (September 1987) and for the Olympic Games in Seoul. She had to remain in good shape at all cost. Birgit did not want to live forever in her little attic flat. She was determined to do everything necessary to set a record that would bring her money and fame and a peaceful retirement. Others had managed, why couldn’t she?

Every day, from her well-equipped medicine cabinet, Birgit would take nine pills on average and wash them down with an ampoule of some liquid med. The investigation found that she had used up to 101 different medications! Among them vitamins B1, B12 and C; meds containing copper, magnesium, and pills claimed by the manufacturer to treat arteriosclerosis, swelling of the legs, allergies, osteoporosis, inflammation of the intestines, weak heart, arterial cramps, swelling… Their names are the products of pure fantasy: “Pascovenol“, “Frubiase“, “Oxypangam’, “Dreisafer“… Birgit also used to drink “Megagrisevit“, an anabolic listed as a forbidden doping substance. She managed to obtain it “anonymously“, through the mail. (It would turn out later that the “anonymous“ sellers were the top level athletic coaches, who obtained these medications on the black market and sold them with an important mark-up, even to their own “protégés“!) This medication is prescribed to people suffering from serious diseases, especially to cancer patients during the final stage of their illness. Dressler used to drink it on a daily basis in order to get muscle gain. She became increasingly masculine. This, however, did not keep her from regularly dosing with “Megagrisevit“, a steroid sold with the warning that it is a sexual hormone used to help the transformation of a feminine into a masculine body. Since 1986, Dressel had been using the anabolic “Stromba“, with similar side effects.

Birgit’s doctor and unquestioned “health advisor“ was a sports medicine professor, a graduated radiologist (!), Armin Klümper, who was recognized as the “top authority“ (“Ober-Guru“) in West German sports medicine. His “Special Clinic for Sports Traumatology“ near Freiburg is the “haven“ for Germany’s ”top athletes“. In the 1990s, the average number of “top“ West German athletes who annually received “treatment“ in his “special clinic“ was 2,400, or 70% of all German athletes. For decathlon competitor Kurt Bendlin, Klümper is the “most important person in West German sport“. According to Dietmar Mögenburg, Olympic champion in men’s high jump, Klümper is a “miracle worker“. Some world champions openly admit that Armin Klümper should be credited for their medals. The extent to which athletes are willing to submit to monster-doctors, who treat them like laboratory rats, can be seen in the case of “Schalke“ football player Wolfgang Patzke, who allowed Klümper to inject his back with seventy “cocktails“ within a period of twenty days, despite the fact that, in his own words, after each shot he got “a sick feeling“.

Birgit Dressel was not so lucky, nor did she have a true mentor. She blindly trusted the “miracle worker” and regularly visited his clinic. She last saw him on 24 February 1987. On that occasion the “Injection Guru” gave her a shot containing 15 different medicines, along with 12 additional capsules. On the same day, Klümper gave his “patient” a substance called “NeyDop“, containing a mixture of “standardized macromolecules of soluble organic lysates” obtained from the cerebral cortex, midbrain, hindbrain and placenta. The manufacturer recommends the use of this medication only for the treatment of paralysis agitans and severe brain damage caused by syphilis and epilepsy. Birgit certainly did not suffer from these conditions. This “cytoplasmic therapy with cell injections“ or, in ordinary language, a therapy using fresh cells in a conserved form, is one of Klümper’s specialties. As long ago as 1985, Klümper allowed Dressel to inject herself with fresh cells despite many previous warnings by a number of colleagues about possible negative effects on the immune system. (This was found out later to be one of the main causes of Birgit’s death). Early in August 1987, several months after Birgit’s death, the West German Ministry of Health prohibited the use of this medication. On the same day, Klümper injected Dressel’s painful lower back with “Discus Compositum“, a mixture containing 37 different substances. Among those were vitamins, zinc, silver, calcium-phosphate, even sulphur. In addition, Klümper  “treated“ Dressel’s ischialgia with “Cefossin, Cefak”, a drug containing gold, with negative side effects, that was found during the autopsy.

Over the course of her career, Klümper gave Dressler over 400 “special“ injections and recommended the use of a large number of medications, among which were those with severe effects on the organs. As with many “top athletes“, Dressel was convinced that her body was capable of easily coping with anything injected into it. Birgit’s mother Lisa, who used to play volleyball, warned Brigit a number of times about the possible consequences of medications. Brigit’s response was typical: “Mom, I need them. Everyone takes them. It’s nothing at all. Decathletes take twice as many.“

According to the report by the “miracle worker“ Armin Klümper (dated 24 February), Birgit Dressel was “healthy to the highest degree” and “at the peak of fitness”. After the autopsy and according to the medical records, the official report revealed that, since 1981, Dressel had been suffering from ever-recurrent hip pain, lateral bending of the spinal column, damage to the disks and fusion of the vertebrae, displacement of the pelvis by two centimeters, degeneration of both kneecaps and fallen arches. In addition, her body was “extremely susceptible to infections”, and she suffered from occasional high blood pressure. As a result of constant straining, her heart muscle contained a number of connective tissues instead of muscle tissues. The “healthy to the highest degree” Birgit Dressel, according to Klümper’s statement in the Police Investigation, was in truth a chronically ill girl, whose body was overloaded with hundreds of drugs. Sport has made a cripple of her long before her death, destroying her joints and prematurely ruining her internal organs.

All that was the consequence of “stereotypical extreme exertion“, as this torture is called in sports science. Within seconds, the lower back is hit by the entire kinetic energy of the weight of the body. The simulation apparatus showed that during a career the “successful” heptathlete must endure between 200 000 and 300 000 instances of extreme physical pressure, which even the strongest woman cannot achieve. Wildor Hollmann, a sports physician and professor from Cologne, claims that “there is no job that even remotely approaches the world-class sport in its adverse effects on the body”. Thus, for example, when practicing on the rings, a gymnast must endure a pressure on his wrists in excess of five times his bodyweight; in a quickly taken penalty kick the ball hits with the strength of a 150kg shot; skiers expose their knees to a pressure higher than that endured by astronauts at lift-off of a rocket; in sports requiring endurance, the heart becomes three times its normal size, it beats arhythmically and only 35 times per minute. Professor Hollman thinks that athletes, due to intense training and increased practice time, have reached their “biological limits”. Fatigue, disease and organ failure are inevitable consequences of such trends. It is fair to say that “top athletes“ are becoming a “bunch of sports cripples and premature invalids” – as the “Der Spiegel“ journalists claim.

Not so long ago, Bertolt Brecht said that “great sport begins at the point it ceases to be healthy“. Former rhythmic gymnast Herta Löwenberg wrote in her diary: “Sport is death”. The medical journal “Ärztliche Praxis” concludes that “high-level sport has nothing to do with health“. An increasing number of doctors are facing sport and illness. Every second orthopedist lives off the injuries suffered in sport.

It is 8 April 1987. The beginning of the end. Birgit sets out to her last practice. Shot-put. She suddenly feels a sharp pain in her lower back extending to her pelvis. The pain is familiar to her. Since the beginning of the year, she has twice stopped a practice for the same reason. Dressel and her coach conclude that it was a severe muscle strain. The same afternoon, they visited the orthopedist, Dr. A (the texts dealing with this case do not mention doctors’ names, using single letters instead!), with a good reputation among the athletes. He gave her two or three milliliters of “Xylonest” as a local anesthetic, then “Voltaren”, commonly administered for the treatment of rheumatism. About 6pm, Dr. A used his syringe again, this time at the sports centre. Since Dressel continued to feel pain, Dr. A gave her “Myo-Melcain”, a combination of a local anesthetic and honey.

The next day in the afternoon, Birgit visited Dr. A again. Her condition had deteriorated. Her leg and butt had become extremely sensitive to touch and cold. After an x-ray examination, instead of honey, Dr. A injected “Voltaren” and then “Baralgin”. Both medicines are considered “strong pain-relievers”. For use at home, Dr. A gave her “Godamed” and “Tranquase-5” tablets, as well as “Optipyrin” suppositories. They contain, among other ingredients, tranquilizers and codeine, an opiate like morphine. In spite of warnings by independent experts, such medications are widely used in Germany. Doctors believe in the so-called shotgun effect, while patients have a silly belief that “more medications work more”. This belief is especially widespread among athletes. Birgit Dressel also believed that, and it cost her life.

At home, according to reports from the official investigation, Dressel had between 10 and 15 tablets of “Godamed“ in her system. The same afternoon, a neurologist, Dr. B, visited her along with Dr. A and diagnosed her with “lumbago without neurological disorders”, recommending the application of ice. She did not get any better. Birgit did not sleep a wink that night. In the meantime, her coach called Dr. A three times asking for help. His recommendation was: “Godamed”, but “not too many“. He also consulted Dr C, an emergency physician, who recommended “Aspirin” and “Heparin” ointment. And that was it.

The next morning, at 6:30am, Dr. A visited Dressel again. She was in “excruciating pain”, but had a “strong pulse”.  He did not observe any indication of a shock, allergic symptoms or neurological disorder. Because of the “excruciating pain”, his diagnosis was: “kidney attack”. It was one of a number of false assumptions and wrong diagnoses that were made on that day. Sixteen hours and twenty-four new treatments stood between Birgit and death. Almost every new diagnosis was followed by a new therapy. Tens of new medications would be pumped into Birgit’s dying body. This time, Dr A injected a large ampoule of “Meta-Attritin”, another medicinal compound. This “shot” was supposed to be injected into her back muscle. But however hard he tried, he could not effect the injection. The muscle was so tight that the syringe bent. Dr. A gave her the injection in the right buttock.

After the second visit, Dr. A decided to send Birgit to a clinic, two days after she first felt the fatal pain. With a presumed “kidney attack” and in severe pain, Dressel was transported to the Urology Department at Mainz University Medical Centre, which, like other similar institutions, enjoyed a good reputation. A number of specialists gathered around Dressel. After three long hours, a team of specialists, that had already been convened, gave the priority to the urologist, Dr. C. After an x-ray examination, he concluded that, as far as his area of expertise was concerned, he could not detect any impairment. His colleague, Dr. D, agreed with this conclusion and notified his superior, primarius Dr. E, accordingly. In the meantime, to relieve her pain, she was given an injection of “Buscopan”.

It was 1pm. Birgit was transported to the emergency surgical ward. She was moaning in pain. Four surgeons tended to her. The first, Dr. F, thought that the most important thing was to relieve the pain.  Birgit then received intravenous therapy, in which, over the course of several hours, she was given two ampoules of “Buscopan Compositum” deluted with “Sterofundin”. “Buscopan Compositum” also contains five grams of a substance called metamizol, which, due to its severe side-effects, was later banned by the Ministry of Health of the Federal Republic of Germany. According to the forensics report, Dressel may have received a fatal dose. Birgit survived this treatment, but the pain remained.

Emergency surgeons, F, G, H, and I, finally came to the correct conclusion that it was not a sports injury, but “multiple organ failure” or, as an ancillary assumption, a “disc or spinal cord disease”. The autopsy showed that their suspicion was right. Birgit had a severe inflammation of the spinal nerves, and this caused the pain. Acting on this diagnosis, a general surgery specialist, primarius J, and two neurosurgeons, doctors K and L, were called in. Seven hours after being admitted to the clinic, Dressel was still able to “orient herself in time and space“ and was complaining of great thirst. In their joint report, the neurosurgeons recorded that Birgit “was talking a lot”. At the same time, her lips and nails turned blue. There was also some white crusting on her lips. While answering questions, Dressel “uncontrollably released urine“. The diagnosis of the surgeons was: “There is no indication of a neurological disorder; suspected pill poisoning.”

In addition to the team of neurologist, a team of internal medicine specialists was convened and computer tomography of the head was performed. Neurologists Dr. M and Dr. N were called in, but there was nothing they could do. The doctors could only conclude that she had endured a “shock, threatening her vital functions”. Birgit’s athletic heart began to beat faster and faster, and she had difficulty breathing. Such an urgent case required an anesthesiologist. Doctors O, P, Q, R, S, T, and U, were called in. In response to the energetic voice of the internal medicine specialist, Birgit moved her arm and opened her eyes for the last time. They put an oxygen mask on her face and she was moved to the emergency room, where she would be placed in an induced coma and put on a respirator. An hour later, at 19h 45min, the dying Birgit was put in an emergency vehicle and, under constant supervision, transported to the intensive care unit. The diagnosis was now: “Suspected blood poisoning, blood decomposition”. The diagnosis was correct but belated. At that moment, Birgit was already in the claws of death.

Doctors V and W made a last attempt to save her life. Among other medications, they gave her four units of blood and high doses of natural hormones. All in vain. Birgit’s tortured body could no longer fight for life. “World-class athletics“ and thousands of pills and injections had done their job. On 10 April 1987, Birgit passed away.

 

Footnotes

1) The text is based on the article published on 7 September 1987, by the German magazine “Der Spiegel” under the title “Tod einer Sportlerin” (“The Death of an Athlete”).

2) Compare: „Der Spiegel“, 9/1992.

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović (Petrović)

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

 

“Socialist sport”

&

One of the greatest illusions created and systematically encouraged by Stalinist ideologues is that of the so-called “socialist (communist) sport”. Bourgeois ideologues enthusiastically accepted this fraud. It did not occur to them, although they persistently maintained that all that came from the East was “propaganda”, to question the “socialist” and “communist” attributes, overlooking the fact that a number of Marxist theoreticians from the West strongly opposed the theory and practice of Soviet “socialism” and that in the USSR, itself, a number of Marxist critics of Stalinism were liquidated or forced to leave the country. The most important goal of the “free world” ideologues was obviously to intimidate the workers in their countries with the “specter of communism”, reducing Marx’s vision of socialist (communist) society to the practice of Stalinism. It is in that context that the official attitude of the West towards Soviet sport should be viewed. The West sought to present the overwhelming domination of Soviet and East-European athletes on the world scene as the result of “manipulation” and “abuse” of these competitors by “communist totalitarianism”, while, at the same time, unofficially of course, doing everything, including mimicking Eastern sports training, to overcome the painfully inferior position in which it found itself. Even after the disintegration of the “Eastern bloc” and the Soviet Union, “socialist sport”, considering its results, remained the unattainable ideal for the “Western world”.

Great doubts about the endeavors to develop free physical culture were caused by the so-called “Marxist-Leninist” project of physical education (sport) in the USSR. The very term “Leninist” suggests an adaptation of Marx’s critique of capitalist society – whose realization presupposes a bourgeois society, its contradiction developed to the utmost, which in its “bosom” created possibilities for the “leap from the realm of necessity to the realm of freedom“ (Engels) – to the conditions of the post-revolutionary Soviet society (by turning it into a positivist “theory of socialism”, i.e., a means for obtaining the “scientific” legitimacy for the practice of “real socialism”), built on the ruins of an order which hardly stepped into capitalism and which contained not one essential element for stepping out of it, let alone for overcoming the capitalist world. The “new socialist physical culture” was built on the conception, which became dominant in the USSR after the collapse of the revolutionary workers’ movement in the West, that it was possible to “build socialism” on the foundations of an underdeveloped bourgeois society by relying on “indigenous forces” and by “taking from capitalism whatever was useful for the development of socialism” (Lenin). By using this mechanistic logic, the chief ideologues of the USSR “overlooked” the fact that “taking” the institutions of capitalist society simultaneously necessitated the establishment of the very social relations that the Revolution sought to abolish. The principles inherited from the “legacy” of capitalist society became the unquestionable guiding principles in the development of theory and practice in the USSR. The true socialist ideas, arising from Marx’s libertarian humanism, were to be discarded immediately after the Revolution as “leftist radicalism”. What appears in Marx, with respect to a developed capitalist society, as a (concrete) utopian project, was proclaimed, in the post-revolutionary (especially Stalinist) period, a utopistic fantasy. Instead of overcoming sport and establishing a libertarian physical culture, which was particularly supported by “proletarian-cultists” (opposed to the “mania” of setting records), a “socialist sport” and a “socialist physical culture” were established, hopelessly remaining within the boundaries of the capitalist ideological horizon.

The uncritical attitude to sport involved an uncritical relation to quantitative measurement as a basis for determining human “value” and as an intermediary in human relationships; to a technologized and functionalized mind and relating that to industrial “aesthetics” (body mechanization); to inhuman combat between people in “blood sports” such as boxing (which was particularly supported by Anatoly Lunacharsky, one of the leading figures in post-revolutionary sport), which retained the attribute of a “noble art”; to breaking links with national cultures with the establishment of “uravnilovka” (equal compensation regardless of contribution) based on physical “qualities”; to institutional degradation of women, e.g., the use of military drills reduced unto eliminated the erotic, the sensuous, the spiritual, spontaneity, imagination, in effect, disregarded man’s playing nature, without which there is no genuine humanism.

It is only in this context that those consequences of Lenin’s view, fatal to the overall development of human beings and genuine human relations, that athletics, gymnastics and other forms of physical exercise, are more important for young people than issues pertaining to their sexual life, become clear. By appealing to one of the most reactionary principles of bourgeois thought, “a healthy body is a healthy soul” (1), Lenin significantly contributed to the oppression of the body, which peaked in “Stakhanovchina” – “a bureaucratic death of the body” according to Jean-Marie Brohm. It is about a systematic suppression of authentic human needs and the creation of a masochistic-productivistic character, which is ideally suited to the character of a model citizen from the period of the original accumulation of capital.

In spite of attaching great importance to the achievement of better results (records), the utmost goal of post-revolutionary Soviet sports pedagogy was not the creation of an athlete-record holder, but above all of a loyal (“conceptually conscious”) and usable (“useful”) “Soviet citizen”. In the 1925 “Resolution on Physical Culture”, it is pointed out that physical culture is not only a means for improving health, for physical education, for the development of cultural and labor values, and the enhancement of military training, but also a means for “educating the masses”, which, above all, means for the creation of a model citizen suited to the “needs of the time”, i.e., the demands on society made by the Party leaders. At the same time, physical culture has the task of instructing workers and peasants to take part, through the Party, in the activities of the trade union and the Soviets, of social and political life. It becomes the chief political means for integrating people into the established order. As for competition, according to Nikolai Semashko, President of the High State Council for Physical Culture in the post-revolutionary period, “It should ultimately serve as an instrument for including people in the building of socialism”. (2) In his speech to the Komsomol in Dniepropetrovsk in 1934, M.I. Kalinin, one of the leading Soviet pedagogues at that time, says the following: “Here, however, we should pay attention to this very important area of activity of the Komsomol, physical culture. Sport is a good thing; it builds you. However, in spite of that, it is but an ancillary activity, and it is not good if it becomes its own end, a matter of merely setting records. We want people to develop in all ways, we want them to run and swim well, to walk briskly and elegantly and every part of their body to be healthy – to put it concisely: we want them to be normal and healthy, able to work and defend themselves; we want proper development of all their physical qualities with a corresponding development of their mental qualities. – During our numerous visits to military schools, comrade Voroshilov paid special attention to these issues. He said that we should avoid the mere setting of records; that we should not engage in sport for sport’s sake; and that sport should be secondary to the general issues of communist education. Because all we do is not only toward the creation and development of athletes, but of citizens participating in the development of the Soviet state, people who must not only have strong arms and good digestion, but, above all, possess a broad political perspective and organizational skills. Hence, simultaneously with winning over millions of new young workers for the physical culture movement and raising sport in our country to the highest level, the Komsomol must see that our sports people have clearly shaped views of political matters and matters of general importance. I would like the members of the Komsomol to understand me properly. I do not want them to think that I wish to curb their enthusiasm. I want them to realize how important it is that things in all areas of our life and work are organized properly and in the Bolshevik manner.“ (3)

On the eve of the Second World War, physical culture and sport were developed under the motto: “Everything for the defense of the Soviet country!”. In December 1938, in his speech to school teachers, Kalinin emphasized the importance of physical culture for the development of a “collective comrade spirit”, starting from school days, which should enable the construction of a “steel wall” protecting the USSR from the West, which “waits for the right moment to destroy the Soviet Union”. (4)

After the Second World War, during the period of the “cold war“ and the appearance on the international scene of Soviet athletes (as well as athletes from the “socialist lager”), the (proclaimed) pre-war pedagogical doctrine was definitely abandoned, first in practice and then in theory. Sports victories and records became one of the most important means of order in the struggle for international prestige and the strengthening national power, and athletes consequently became the frontline warriors. To set a record (“For the country!”) became the chief, unquestioned goal of any sports competition. By including science, sport became an industry engaged in the production of record holders, with physical culture as the “broadest basis for the development of world-class competition”. Instead of criticizing the one-sided physical activism and a complete subjugation to sport, which turns people into anti-social beings and physical and mental invalids, the record holders are being praised and granted the status of “heroes of socialism”.

Professionalism is an inevitable step in the current development of sport: athletes acquire the peculiar status of state hirelings. Certainly, a proper “socialist” justification was found for that. After the international athletics became part of the global entertainment industry (show-business), “socialist sport” became commercialized and after the disintegration of the “Eastern bloc” and the Soviet Union, Western capital bought “socialist sport” at a low price and without any resistance in order to turn it into its advertising billboard.

The most important point in this context is that the entire process of the “transformation” of sport in the USSR developed under the guise of “progressive changes in socialist sport”. Never were the (Marxist) humanist ideals of socialism (communism) confronted with the reality of established “socialism”. Under the ideological mask of a “struggle for communism”, a ruthless struggle with critical thought developed, with thinking that might have demonstrated the true nature of “socialist sport” and, coincidentally, the true nature of “real socialism”. And while Marxist thinkers in the West were criticizing the inhuman nature of sport and revealing its political background, in the USSR and other “socialist” countries the undisputed authorities in sports pedagogy and the “amateur sport” movement were personalities like Pierre de Coubertin, who devoted the entirety of his “Olympic” life to the struggle against the libertarian workers’ movement and the ideals of socialism and bequeathed all of his written legacy to the Nazis, entrusting them with the task of preventing his Olympic ideal from being “distorted”. Under different ideological guises, Coubertin and Soviet bureaucracy were united in one thing: sport is an institution that serves to preserve the ruling order. Their common enemy was the working class as a possible agent of social changes. This orientation led to Juan Antonio Samaranch, for forty years one of the leading figures in the Spanish fascist movement and who never renounced his fascist past, being elected (with the decisive support of the Soviet bureaucracy) President of the International Olympic Committee in Moscow, capital of the country where fascism caused terrible sufferings, killing over twenty five million people.

The ideologues of “real socialism” were of one voice when it came to emphasizing the “emancipatory” character of “socialist sport”, which included most importantly its “mass character”, the active participation of women, the achievement of heightened results (records) as an expression of its “progressive strivings”, and so on. As for “mass character”, it should be said that Nazis maniacally insisted on the value of “mass physical culture and sport” (“Kraft durch Freude“). It was also the practice in the USA (“Recreation Program”, etc.), particularly today when “physical culture” has become one of the main forms of consumerism in the struggle for survival in the increasingly cruel everyday life of capitalist society. Thus, it is not the mass character, itself, that differentiates “capitalist physical culture” from “socialist physical culture”; it is rather its nature: is it a libertarian activity or is it about integrating man into an order where he is ruled by capital or the state? It should be added that so-called “mass physical culture” has officially become the “broadest rationale for the reproduction of world-class sport”, with millions of children involved in “sports programs” (above all, in the former-Eastern Germany), whose norms and working methods are dictated by the so called “world-class sport” that has led to the ultimate physical and mental destruction of man. Abuse of children, for the sake of “progress”, has taken on a monstrous dimension. The “emancipation of women” through sport should be viewed in the same context. It means that sport, in practice, has become a space for the (increasingly brutal) exploitation of women. To make matters worse, due to biological constraints (and in spite of the increasing use of “stimulants”) that are ever more dramatically effecting so-called “men’s sports”, woman has become the principal “engine” for setting records and the means for proving the “progressive” character of the ruling order. The true position of “women’s emancipation” in Soviet sport (society) can be seen in the fact that, before 1972, in spite of the domination on the international scene of female Soviet athletes and a growing number of women coaches, only one woman, and for only about three months, ever held a leading position in Soviet sport. (5)

Where the “Marxist” legitimacy of “socialist sport” is concerned, it should be noted that for Marx socialism is not a socio-economic end-stage, but a transitional period to the establishment of communism, the stage in which both the basic capitalist (economic and proprietary) relations and institutional spheres of bourgeois society will be abolished. It is about the “dying out” (Engels) of the institutions of bourgeois society, including sport, and not about “building socialism” by “strengthening” them (Stalin). Marx insists on workers as an “association of agents” participating directly in governing the overall social reproduction (social ownership), while Stalinism insists on the strengthening of State institutions, on the state’s power over man (state ownership). Society as a community of free creative people, namely, a communal life which is neither mediated nor subjugated by the repressive institutions of bourgeois society (the so called “public sphere”), but is always a novel, more developed, wealthier product of creative human activity in terms of its forms and contents – this is one of the main challenges of Marx’s humanism, totally opposed to Stalinism, which reduces society to a peculiar labor camp.

The Soviet conception of physical culture (sport) is not only a deviation from the fundamental postulates of Marx’s critique of capitalist society and its institutions, but also from Marx’s “Instructions” to workers from 1866 regarding the use of physical exercise as a means for strengthening the body and educating young workers. (6) Marx emphasizes the importance of physical education primarily as a means for developing class-consciousness and class integration of workers – for fighting against the bourgeoisie, which in Marx means against exploitation and subjugation. Workers, united as a class, are a revolutionary agent of changes and, thus, are free from the tutorial guidance of the bourgeoisie, the state and the Party. Physical, just like spiritual and poly-technical, education does not serve to turn man (worker) into a loyal and usable “citizen”, but, rather, is an authentic activity for a libertarian-oriented man who seeks to “destroy all relations in which man is a humiliated and oppressed being” (Marx) and create his own (genuinely human) world.

In the Soviet doctrine of physical culture (sport) there is no class integration since workers have already “seized power” (through Revolution) and thereby abolished class society, which means abolishing themselves as a class. In the “new” society, they are, as individuals, reduced to being “citizens” who are in a subordinate position with relation to the government (state, Party), and in terms of collectivity, they are the amorphous and unconscious “working masses” or “working people”. The ideologues of Stalinism reduce man, as does the church, to a “sheep” that is to be led to “paradise” (“communism”) by its “shepherds” (Party leaders), and be shorn and milked along the way. Man is by his nature “good”, but not sufficiently grown-up to account for his actions and assume responsibility for social development. So-called “historical materialism” becomes the fatal force that, through the Party leaders’ holding the key to the “holy secret”, governs human lives and determines the course of the development of society. What is left to man is to unquestioningly believe in the “infallibility of leaders” and obediently execute what is required of him. It is not the consciousness of an emancipated citizen, but the consciousness of a subject. The worker is no longer a revolutionary agent in the struggle against capitalism for a communist society; he has become part of the “working masses”, which have been reduced to a tool of the Party leaders for the “building of socialism”. Instead of encouraging man to overcome the institutions of bourgeois society, his main task is the “struggle for their strengthening”. Physical culture is no longer a form of workers’ self-organization and the means for heightening their class-libertarian consciousness; it is rather an instrument for subjugating man and bending his behavior to the will of the ruling “elite”. Hence the ideologues of Soviet physical culture (sport) understand it primarily as organization, norms, “common goals” dictated by party decrees, i.e., a mechanism for keeping the “masses” under control. “Personal initiative” is welcome, but only when it follows the ruling spirit. Like “bourgeois physical culture” and “bourgeois sport”, “socialist physical culture” and “socialist sport” have become one of the chief political means for destroying the critical-changing (class-libertarian) consciousness of workers and for integrating them into the established order – which is the opposite of Marx’s idea of libertarian physical activism.

Marx’s thought is multi-layered. When he speaks to young workers advising them how to fight against capitalists, Marx’s thought on physical culture remains within the framework of the bourgeois order. To young workers he recommends “physical education similar to that provided in schools for gymnastics and through military drills” /emphs. K.M./ (7), the sort produced in bourgeois society that is the privilege of aristocratic and bourgeois youth, so they can become physically stronger and develop a belligerent class spirit, which will, ultimately, enable them to take power. Unlike bourgeois pedagogues who give precedence to physical education over spiritual growth, Marx gives priority to “spiritual education”, i.e., he views physical education in the context of an overall human development. Physical exercises are not the means by which the character of a “model citizen” is created, but the means for the development of a free man. The education of young workers involves the impulse of human emancipation, which derives from Marx’s view that the proletariat is not struggling for their special class interests, which is typical of the bourgeoisie and previous classes, but for the realization of common human interests. By “entrusting” the proletariat with the “mission” of liberating mankind from plundering and tyranny, the physical education of young workers acquires a libertarian dimension. Indeed, the worker has not yet freed himself from the dominant forms of physical education, but he treats them as the means that will (along with paid productive labor, spiritual and poly-technical education) “elevate the working class considerably above the upper and middle classes” (aristocracy and bourgeoisie). (8) The superiority of young workers is based on the overall development of their personalities, which opens up the possibility of their immediate management of overall social reproduction. It is about the pragmatic logic, which, “in the given circumstances”, departs from the “general laws, the observation of which is enforced by the state power”, while the working class by “adapting them to life” “makes a tool of the power which is now used against it”. /emphs. K.M/ (9) Obviously, it is about strivings to use legal possibilities by the legal means offered by the capitalist order for the purpose of achieving the working class (universally human) goals. Civil institutions should become the instrument of the working class in its struggle against the capitalist order.

If it is not the true goal of the revolutionary struggle of the proletariat to take power and, especially, to keep it by using the institutions of bourgeois society (Engels’ view on the “dying out” of the institutions of bourgeois society in socialism), but to abolish the power relations (subjugation), it should be consider just how it is possible to take a significant step forward by using the means that, per se, prevent man from developing his genuine human powers, and without which there are no new horizons? Let us take for example the physical exercises recommended to the proletariat youth by Marx. These are, in essence, military drills intended to “discipline” the child, and do little more than suppress sexuality, sensuality, spontaneity, imagination… Instead of respecting their personalities, children are turned into impersonal executors of exercises that do nothing more than mimic the functions of machines and are, by their nature, contrary to everything offered by the possibility of developing a spiritually rich individual – the main reason why bourgeois pedagogy used this rote training for the creation of the “model citizen”. It is precisely by departing from Marx’s epochal notion that by changing the world man changes himself, that we can ask how much the world has actually changed if man, as an individual, remained within the spiritual confines of capitalist society?

The struggle for human emancipation by means of bourgeois physical culture (sport) is conducted on the field of the bourgeois society. It becomes the means for integrating workers into the order dominated by the values of the bourgeois society. Coubertin saw that clearly. Despite being a fanatical anti-socialist, he supported, at the time of the crisis of European capitalism, the idea of organizing “Workers’ Olympic games” in order to keep the future horizon for workers within the framework of a society dominated by mutual struggle for victory – through the achievement of a greater result (record). He realized that a (possible) political victory by the workers does not mean the end of capitalist society if the fundamental principles of that society continue to prevail. The possibility offered to everyone freely to engage in sport does not mean that man realizes his true freedom through sport. Let us take for example boxing, where the spirit of sport is most clearly expressed. Can the true freedom of man be asserted by inflicting physical injuries on another man, who is reduced to an “opponent”, while killing is the essential part of the risk involved in a “sports competition”? Or by endeavors to create, through the increasingly ruthless destruction of the organism, ever “greater results” (records)? “To rule the heads”, through physical culture and sport – this is the basic aim of Coubertin’s “utilitarian pedagogy”, which he earned him the respect of the Olympic gods of modern times.

Interestingly, the bourgeois ideologues, who until recently maintained that there was no “capitalism” in the West, that it is rather “industrial society”, now triumphantly state that “capitalism has won the battle with communism”. What does this victory consist of when it comes to sport? If it is about Western capital having become the master of the former “socialist sport” without any resistance whatsoever, it only means that it changed owners without changing its nature. The position of athletes is the best indicator of how much relations have changed. In “real-socialist” sport, athletes were engaged by the state, and the entire “sports engine” was a “billboard” for the ruling system. Since the victory of “democracy”, athletes have been hired by capitalist companies, and sport has become their advertising campaign and a banal kind of show-business. Moreover, considering the fact that, even in our country (Serbia), the leaders of the “new sport” are the same people who for decades held the leading positions in “socialist sport”, it is clear that “capitalism has won the battle” leaving behind a specter that, in collaboration with the ideologues of Stalinism, was created by the ideologues of the “free world”.

 

Footnotes

1) In: James Riordan, “Marx, Lenin and Physical Culture”, Journal of Sport History, vol.3 (1976) no. 2,158p.

2) N. A. Semashko, Puti sovetskoi fizkultury, 22p, in James Riordan, Sport in Soviet Society, 97p, Cambridge University Press, London,1977/

3) M. I. Kalinjin, On Communist Education, Literature in Foreign Languages, Moscow, 1953.

4) Ibid.

5) Compare: Riordan, Sport in Soviet Society, 406p.

6) Compare: K. Marx, “Instructions to Delegates of the Provisional Central Council”, in K. Marx – F. Engels, Opus, vol. 27, pp 157-158. Prosveta, Beograd, 1979. In “Capital”, Marx refers to Robert Owen and his “factory system”, which generated the “germ of future education that will, for all children above a certain age, unite the labor of production with education and gymnastics, not only as a method for increasing social production, but also as the only method for the production of versatile people” /Opus, vol. I, book 21, p 428/ For the formation of human character and plans for training children, including the attainment of a healthy body as the basic precondition for a happy life, see: Robert Owen, A New View of Society, p 27, Macmillan, London, 1972.

7) Marx, Instructions for the Delegates …, p 157.

8) Ibid, p 158.

9) Ibid, p 157.

 

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović/Petrović

English translation supervisor, Mick Collins

 

Who is Anders Breivik?

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Breivik’s crime has a profoundly symbolic value.

The massacre on the island of Utøya is a concrete manifestation of the destructive nature of the ruling order.

Breivik is the authentic product of contemporary capitalism.

He is one of the crusaders of a „new world order“ based on the ruling principle of monopolistic capitalism: „Destroy the competition!“

The most powerful American and European capitalist circles do not hide the fact that their goal is to annihilate billions of „surplus“ people.

How many „Breiviks“ are there in NATO uniforms?

The „problem“ is that Breivik killed independently.

If he were a NATO mercenary slaughtering children and pregnant women in Afghanistan, he would be praised as a „fighter for democracy“.

His crime indicates that the destructive potential of capitalism may turn against the society in which it was generated and that the ruling establishment cannot keep it under control.

Breivik is „mentaly sick“ just as are Bush, Clinton, Blair, Merkel, Sarkozy, Obama; just as are the owners of the American military industry and NATO commanders; just as are hundreds of thousands of scientists who manufacture the most atrocious mass-killing devices; just as are the bloodthirsty journalists of the most powerful media concerns; just as are the capitalist petty bourgeoisie, who are capable of committing the most horrible crimes in order to protect their standard of living…

Breivik demonstrated the fascist potential of capitalist „democracy“.

He did what tens of millions of capitalist zealots all over Europe and America would like to do.

He is their „hero“.

The trial in Norway is not intended to convict Breivik; its purpose is rather to conceal the true nature of capitalism.

 

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović

English translation supervisor Mick Collins

Capitalist crematorium and the generation of the damned

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                 The truth is not in philosophy, science, art, religion…

The truth is in the eyes of a child begging for help. 

 

The world has become a capitalistic crematorium. The most important task for the humanist intelligentsia is to develop in contemporary man a self-consciousness that will provide humankind with the possibility to survive. The humanist intelligentsia has to draw attention to the increasingly dramatic consequences of the development of capitalism as a destructive order and to the existing objective possibilities for the creation of a new world. At the same time, it needs to develop a political strategy that will become the starting point for the creation of  global forms of  political struggle that would stop the destruction of life on the planet and create a new world. We are not suggesting the development of a distinctive intellectual “elite” that would declare itself “the conscience” of humankind and thus become a group alienated from “ordinary” people, but a commitment by people conscious of the destructive nature of capitalism and willing to dedicate their lives to the struggle for the preservation of life and the freedom of humankind. A genuine humanist intelligentsia needs to light the road to the future. In the context of an increasingly dramatic existential crisis generated by capitalism, it needs to become a lighthouse that will shine with an expanding glow, as the darkness generated by capitalism grows thicker. The Promethean principle has become a basic existential principle. That is why it is of crucial importance not to make compromises and not to adjust to the current political situation. A compromise results in the loss of the ability to create light – without which humankind will vanish into the darkness of destructive capitalist nothingness.

The critique of capitalism should be based on two methodological postulates. First: the nature of a certain social (historical) phenomenon is determined by the tendencies of its development – of what it is developing into. Second: the nature of a social (historical) phenomenon conditions the nature of its critique. The nature of capitalism, that is, the tendency of its development as a destructive system, conditions both the nature of the critique of capitalism and the political strategy for the fight against capitalism. This is not to suggest the creation of a uniform way of thinking, but a way of thinking that endeavors to ask questions of an existential and essential nature. Such a way of thinking represents a contraposition to the ruling ideology, manifested in the “Coca Cola culture” that tends to marginalize the essential in order to assign a spectacular dimension to the marginal.

A concrete critique of capitalism cannot be based solely upon essential humanism; it must also be based upon existential humanism. The ideals of the French Revolution – Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité – present a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for the future. The struggle to preserve life on the planet and increase the certainty of man’s survival as a cultural  (social) and biological (natural) being represents a conditio sine qua non of the struggle for the future. Instead of the Marx’s notion of “alienation” (Entfremdung), the key notion in the critique of capitalism should be destruction. Marx’s revolutionary humanism opposes capitalism as a system of non-freedom, injustice, and non-reason, and advocates freedom, social justice, and a reasonable world, which means that it appears in the essential sphere. Existential humanism emerges in relation to capitalism as a destructive order that annihilates nature and man as a biological and human being – and places the struggle for the survival of the living world in the foreground, which means that it appears in the existential sphere. The affirmation of man as a creative and libertarian being is a response to the world where man is alienated from himself as a creative and libertarian being. The assertion that man is a life-creating being is a response to the world based upon the destruction of life: the struggle for freedom becomes the struggle for survival. The struggle for a reasonable world does not only represent an essential, but also an existential challenge. At the same time, Hegel’s (Marx’s) dialectic can be accepted only conditionally as the starting point for the development of a critique of capitalism, for its (historical) pyramid of freedom is founded upon existential certainty.

The “traditional” Marxist critique of capitalism, from the point of view of what-is-yet-to-be (Bloch’s noch-nicht-Sein), is of an abstract nature. The concrete nature of the capitalist positive also conditions the nature of the negative, which is a critical consciousness and a political practice based on it. Contemporary man cannot attain an appropriate historical self-consciousness starting from an absolutized and idealized anthropological model of man as a universal creative being of freedom, but starting from the existential challenges that capitalism, as a destructive system, imposes on man. Man’s becoming a human being (what he, in his essence, is – a totalizing libertarian, creative and life-creating being) and the world’s becoming a human world is conditioned by capitalism’s becoming capitalism (that is, its turning into what it essentially isa totalitarian destructive order). A concrete future cannot be grounded in what man desires to do based on his own authentic human needs, but in what man must do if humankind is to survive. The essential level of the future is directly conditioned by existential challenges. The development of capitalism has further diminished the chances for the future to be the product of man’s free (visionary) creative practice (Bloch’s “openness“), which is in turn conditioned by consequences generated by capitalism as a destructive order. Objective possibilities for the creation of a new world and the possibility of man’s realization as a universal free creative being are conditioned by the developmental capacities of capitalism as a destructive order. This is the basis for a concrete dialectic of the future. A destroyed nature, a mutilated man, accumulated destructive powers of capitalism that could momentarily destroy humankind – this also represents an objective situation that inevitably conditions the probability of the future and its planning. It is not man who assigns to himself tasks that he can complete, as Marx asserts, it is capitalism that imposes a crucial task on man: to preserve life on the planet and to save humankind from destruction. To meet the challenge of the historical task imposed on man by capitalism means to facing up to capitalism as an order that destroys life.

For Marxist theoreticians, an empty stomach is man’s key existential driving force. Bloch’s view is that “planning is founded on hunger, poverty and scarcity”. Capitalism fills the stomachs of its subjects while destroying nature and degenerating man as a natural and human being, turning him into a waste disposal unit whose role is to destroy as much as possible of the increasingly poisonous surrogates of the “consumer” civilization. As for man’s innate aggressiveness as a living being, capitalism transforms man’s vital aggressiveness into a destructive power. People’s potentially change-oriented energy, deriving from their increasing dissatisfaction, becomes, by means of capitalism’s vital and ideological sphere, a spiritus movens of capitalism. The need for life is being transformed into the need for destruction. Criticizing Hegel, Bloch rightfully points out the fact that in history not all negations are necessarily a move forward. However, he fails to realize that the capitalist negation leads towards the destruction of the world. Not a word on capitalism as a destructive order, nor, in that context, about the consciousness of a possible destruction of life as the essential content of a revolutionary consciousness. The anticipation of the future, as a concrete anticipation of a concrete future, must anticipate the development of capitalism, that is, the consequences generated by capitalism as a destructive order that inevitably condition man’s  freedom and, along with it, the possibility of a future and its concrete nature.

Capitalist development of productive forces does not enhance the certainty of human survival, as Marx argues, but questions it more and more dramatically. Therefore, instead of engendering optimism, capitalist “progress” generates fear of the future. The most perilous characteristic of capitalism is related to the fact that, from the results of life-destruction, it creates a source of profit and, thus, a basis for its own further development, where man’s creative powers become a vehicle for the development of the destructive powers of capitalism and for acceleration of the destruction process. Capitalism has become a self-reproducing mechanism of destruction, which, to the living world, represents what a malignant tumor represents to an organism: it extends its own lifetime by devouring all that provides humankind with a chance for survival. This does not refer only to the systematic, but to the ultimate destruction of life on the planet.

Capitalism is based on ecocidal terrorism. Life is constantly diminishing and so is humanity. The ecological clock is striking the last hours. The issue at stake is not only global warming, but a systematic destruction of the living world and man as a biological and human being. Capitalism exterminated tens of thousands of animal species. Zoos, the concentration camps for animals, clearly show how capitalism treats the living world. Agriculture based on profit destroys the soil with increasingly poisonous chemicals, genetically distorted plants and monocultures. Forests are dying. Water resources are being destroyed. Hundreds of thousands of containers full of nuclear waste have been thrown into the ocean depths. Over 90% of the seas and oceans are polluted. The north and the south poles are melting. The sea level is rising, which will result in the flooding of coastal towns and vast stretches of the land. A decrease in the salinity of the North Sea will stop the Gulf Stream and thus cause catastrophic climate changes not only in the northern hemisphere, but in the whole world. By destroying the ozone layer, capitalism turned the sun, the source of life, into the source of death. Mankind is nearing the zero point, after which the climate changes will bring about increasingly dramatic ecological changes that man will no longer be able to influence.

A genetic distortion of man is under way, as well as a biological destruction of nations. Air, water, food – everything is polluted. The “allowed” amounts of additives are constantly being increased. Their total effects are increasingly detrimental to human health and man’s genetic properties. An increasing number of young people are suffering from serious diseases. An increasing number of people are sterile. Even capitalistically destroyed medicine and pharmacology are not struggling against diseases. Seeking to expand their market, they are producing an increasing number of profitable patients. The American Medical Association has passed a resolution that doctors should stop using preventive medicine as it reduces the number of patients and thus diminishes the doctors’ earnings. It is estimated that in the West over 70% of all operations are being performed for profit. To kill people, particularly children and girls, in order to “obtain organs” is the most monstrous capitalist practice. In England, over 40,000 girls and boys are kidnapped and massacred annually, in France the figure is over 30,000, in USA over 100,000… The most renowned clinics in the world “obtain” organs on the “black market”, which means that they directly cooperate with professional murderers, who are specialized in kidnapping and killing young people. As the organs are transplanted primarily into people who have money, it is no coincidence that the capitalist oligarchy does not care to deal with this criminal practice. Killing and massacring the children of “ordinary” people in order to replace the organs of the wealthy “elite” most convincingly illustrates the criminal nature of capitalism.

Capitalism is a genocidal order par excellence. The extermination of the Africans, Australian aborigines, Chinese, Indians, Algerians, Koreans, Vietnamese, Iraqis, the Afghans… fills the “most glorious” pages of the history of capitalism. On cotton plantations in the USA, where slavery existed for over 200 years, millions of Africans died of starvation and exhaustion. The slaves who tried to run away had their feet cut off by the capitalists, they were castrated, whipped to death, hanged… It should not be forgotten that the development of capitalism is based upon one of the most atrocious crimes ever committed: the eradication of the North American Indians. What gives a specific dimension to that crime is the fact that American capitalists turned the extermination of the Indians into a multi-billion dollar “business.” Not only were the North American natives exterminated in the most brutal manner, they had to be reduced to “despicable murderers”, and as such became “stars” in the Hollywood film industry. The Indians, victims of the largest genocide in human history, became symbols of evil, while those who massacred millions of Indian children became the incarnation of audacity and goodness. The extermination of the Native Americans represents a symbolic obliteration of life lived in harmony with nature. The “heroes” of the “Wild West”, such as Buffalo Bill, are the incarnation of the ecocidal spirit of capitalism: the monstrous slaughter of buffalos becomes a legendary “pastime” and inviolable pattern of behavior for the youth in the USA and Europe. Between the middle of the XIX century and the Japanese occupation of China, the English capitalists, by military actions and by opium, killed over 250 million Chinese and destroyed and plundered over 90% of the Chinese art treasury. In XIX century England, the cradle of capitalism, every second child died by the age of five from illness or hunger, and every third woman died in childbirth. Nine year old girls and boys worked 14 hours a day (!) in English mines and factories, and the same situation existed in America, Germany, France, czarist Russia and other capitalist countries. It is estimated that at the peak of Western industrialization tens of millions of children perished in mines and factories from exhaustion and hunger. In England, by the middle of the XIX century poor people caught stealing were punished by being tied to wheels set up in town squares and having their intestines taken out. During the great economic crisis of capitalism in 1929, in the USA alone over 4 million workers and members of their families starved to death. The First World War, with over 20 million casualties, which caused the epidemic called “Spanish fever” that killed more people in Europe than the war itself; the rise of fascism in Italy, Germany, Spain and other European countries, as well as in Japan; World War II with over 60 million casualties (out of which over 35 million were Slavs, 6 million Jews and 3 million Roma people) – this is the “civilizatory legacy” of capitalism. In the aftermath of World War II, the French colonial troops “civilized” the Africans by driving the women and children into groups and pouring petrol over them, burning them alive. Men were thrown from airplanes. It is estimated that in Mozambique alone over 100,000 people were killed by these methods. In Indochina, Algeria and other colonies, the French legionnaires committed bestial crimes killing millions of people. American soldiers burned entire cities in Korea, and in Vietnam killed over five million “communists”, one third of whom were children. Little girls were raped on a mass scale. Among the most popular “souvenirs” the American “marines” brought back from Vietnam were “necklaces” of the ears of massacred Vietnamese. In Chile, American capitalists organized the assassination of the legally chosen President Salvatore Allende, who had nationalized the copper mines, and they then brought to power the Pinochet military junta, which over the next few months, using the methods of the Catholic inquisition, killed thousands of people who opposed the dictatorship. The same was done in Argentina and other countries in South and Central America, as well as in South Korea, the Philippines, Africa, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, in the Middle East… Concentration camps are one of the most monstrous products of capitalist civilization. The English colonial powers set up the first camps in South Africa, and in fascist Germany they were “perfected” with gas chambers and other means for mass destruction. The Nazis actually established the death factories, which operated by the same principle as other capitalist plants. The bodies of murdered children, women and men were used as a raw material. The skin, bones and hair of the murdered people were used to make drums, hangers, cloth… The “total war”, the “scorched earth” strategy and, related to that, the “carpet bombing” used to burn towns and kill the population – this is but another “invention” of capitalism. The same “war method” was employed by the Japanese fascists when they attacked China, the Nazi Germans (together with the Italian fascists) during the civil war in Spain, in their attack on Poland, Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, as well as in the American bombing of the German towns during the World War II and the towns in Korea and Vietnam. The use of curbed natural forces in order to create the means of mass destruction is the most devastating product of capitalism. In that respect, the American annihilation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by atomic bombs has a symbolic meaning. The atomic, hydrogen and neutron bombs capable of instantaneously destroying life on the planet; viruses which could destroy life on entire continents; chemical means which could contaminate the rivers – these are the most atrocious results of capitalist “progress”.

The theory of a “golden billion” has become a strategic landmark for the economic and political practice of the most developed capitalist countries. The destruction of an increasing number of people is becoming the basic condition for the survival of fewer and fewer people. A global ecocide has become the basis of a global genocide. Since World War II, world capitalism has been responsible for the deaths of over one billion people, hundreds of millions of whom were children. Thanks to global economic fascism, established by the most advanced capitalist countries, over 30,000 children die every day from diseases, hunger and lack of water. In respect to the repeated “argument” that “overpopulation” is the main cause of the increasing shortages of drinking water, food and energy, it should be said that the Americans, Europeans and Japanese, whose populations total about one billion, use (destroy) the same amount of water, food and energy as 500 billion people would use at today’s rates of consumption in the underdeveloped countries. At the same time, capitalism destroys life in the seas and oceans, which could provide quality nourishment for tens of billions of people. The thesis that the planet is “overpopulated” is actually one of the justifications for the destruction of entire nations so that the most powerful capitalist corporations can get access to natural and energy resources. Not a shortage of natural resources, but a shortage of humanity – which above all means domination by the inhuman and destructive capitalist order – is the main cause of the ever-deepening existential crisis.

The sterilization of the life-creating power (fecundity) of living creatures has become a universal principle of capitalist development. Capitalism obliterates man as a biological being by depriving him of the ability to be a fecund being. Men and women contain fewer and fewer organic ingredients required for fecundity. The polluted environment, contaminated water and food, disruption of the organism’s biological rhythm, increased existential uncertainty that constantly keeps man under stress – this all results in increasingly serious corporal and mental damage. The recuperation of man’s life-creating ability as a fecund (life-creating) being represents one of the most important challenges that capitalism poses for man. The genocidal nature of “consumer society” is evident even in the most developed capitalist countries and it directly affects the white race, which, due to its dominant position in the process of the reproduction of capital, is closest to the crater where profit is made, and is thus most affected by the rhythm of capitalist reproduction. “White plague” ravishes the most developed capitalist countries. Capitalism destroys the family and degenerates the relationship between the sexes. An increasing number of children live with only one parent or without any parents, and instead of developing relationships with the opposite sex, more and more people live alone or in homosexual households. The ruthless devastation of the social fabric represents another major characteristic of capitalism. A growing number of people live alone (in large cities of the most developed West European countries almost one-half of the citizens live in a “single member household”), and a sense of loneliness generating the worst forms of social pathology assumes epidemic proportions. While in some industrial sectors the workday had to be shortened, the need for a “mobile” labor force has increased, which means that individuals who can be at a company’s disposal at all times have an advantage when applying for a new job. And they are the ones “liberated” from all social and, in particular, family obligations. A growing number of women agree to a “voluntary” sterilization in order to “win the employer’s confidence” – and get a job. The official duration of the workday becomes, more and more, non-mandatory. The subordination of all life to the growing velocity of capital reproduction is one of the key causes of the dramatic reduction in the birth rate in developed capitalist countries. If capitalism is not in the near future replaced by a humane society, the white race will disappear. A biological decline of the white race in the most developed capitalist countries, together with the destruction of the environment, has become the key issue which will have a direct impact on political and other social issues.

The deepening existential crisis of humanity reflects the true nature of “progress”, based on increased consumer standards measured by the amount of energy, water, and food used. The creation of the “consumer society” is the most fatal “contribution” of capitalism to the “progress” of humanity. Not only does capitalism produce too many goods with use-value, it produces more and more goods with no use-value at all. The production of the unnecessary leads to the increased consumption of raw material, energy and labor, resulting in the increased pollution of the planet, exploitation of man and disintegration of society. Not only does increasing production not lead to an increased standard of living, it more and more jeopardizes it. Ultimately, a growing part of capitalist reproduction is of a destructive nature. Eating habits are a good illustration. People are becoming containers that devour growing amounts of increasingly poisonous food. In the USA over 150 million citizens suffer from various health problems due to the overconsumption of junk food. At the same time, more and more money is invested in the treatment of problems arising from obesity, far more than in the areas of primary importance for the development of society – such as education.

Science and technology have become the means for a planned destruction of products. Big companies have special facilities intended to “ensure” that the products do not last any longer than planned – in order to force citizens to buy a new product. Durability of products used to be their most important quality. Today, capitalist concerns seek to shorten the expiry date of their products and, instead, lure the consumers with attractive packages (they are sometimes more expensive than the product, itself), functionality and, of course, “good advertising”, which, with TV commercials, becomes a spectacular fraud. The multi-use razor blade was discovered a long time ago, but it is no longer available in shops. The same goes for hundreds of cheap drugs which could save the lives of millions of sick children, but which have been left in the safes of pharmaceutical companies, as their use would decrease the profits. More and more products are sold in a single, compact unit: because of a deficiency in one segment one has to buy the whole part. Products are made of material that makes them difficult to repair. The economic system, led by the banks, seeks to make people (especially by taxation policy) join the consumer mania and thus enable the further functioning of capitalism. “Destroy!” – this has become the categorical imperative of the consumer society.

The dominant  processes indicate the true nature of one of the original principles of capitalism: “Competition breeds quality!”. It turns out that capitalism accepts only the competition that results in increased profit and not satisfaction of human needs. At the same time, instead of the “free competition” of liberal capitalism, a directed competition has been established, dominated by the strategic interests of the most powerful multinational concerns. They determine the “rules of the game”, ruthlessly dealing with those who oppose them. Monopolistic capitalism abolishes competition between individuals and establishes domination as the basic existential principle. “Destroy competition!” and “Big fish devour small fish!” have become the military cries of contemporary capitalism. In the more and more ruthless economic war, capitalist empires devour one another, destroying life on the planet. The space for “personal initiative”, the central legitimizing principle of “real” capitalism, is shrinking. Man is completely subjected to a “higher force” embodied in depersonalized and bureaucratized gigantic corporations. Huge investments, planning the “future”, “conquering the market” – behind all this there are “teams” and “organization”.

When it comes to social justice, the dominant tendency in the capitalist world is a decreasing number of rich people as against an increasing number of the poor. Barely 3% of the population of the USA owns almost 70% of the country’s social wealth. Millions of people live in the streets, in containers and sewage. Every fourth child lives beneath the poverty line. An increasing number of people are starving. Over 50 million American citizens do not have basic health insurance. A total criminalization of society is under way. Violence and crimes have reached outrageous proportions. Bulletproof doors and windows, security systems and cameras – apartments and houses in the “free world” have turned into bunkers. Hundreds of mafia organizations operate in the USA alone, holding in their hands not only the markets for drugs, gambling, prostitution, “white slavery”, sports, human organs and nuclear waste, but also an increasing part of the economy and the banks, politicians, policemen and journalists… In addition, the USA is home to over 100,000 “local” professional gangs and countless street gangs. Between 1901 and 1991, in the USA the murder rate has increased ten fold and now amounts to over 80,000 murders a year. The number of the wounded is five times greater. The number of the murdered and wounded in the USA in the XX century exponentially exceeded the total number of American casualties in the First and Second World Wars, in Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan… In USA prisons, which have become peculiar concentration camps for the “colored”, there are millions of people. School violence has reached horrendous proportions. In spite of stronger police protection, weapons scanners, video surveillance, steel bars and wire fences, in the USA students kill and injure over 30,000 peers and teachers a year. The number of the increasingly lethal firearms owned by the citizens exceeds 300 million. Millions of women are beaten and raped every year. Millions of women and children are engaged in prostitution. In the developed capitalist countries, trafficking in “white slaves” has become one of the most profitable businesses. It is estimated that over half a million girls, mostly from Eastern Europe and Asia, “disappear” every year into the deepening network of prostitution in the West. At private projections, the most popular films are those ending with a ritual slaughter of young girls. Tens of millions of citizens regularly use drugs and alcohol. Each year hundreds of thousands of young people die from drugs and alcohol, or suffer serious physical and mental damage. The majority of people live under constant mental stress. In the USA alone, every year over one million people die of heart attacks and other coronary diseases caused by stress. Over 50 million Americans are estimated to suffer from serious mental disorders. The usage of sedatives has dramatically spread. People take billions of pills yearly. Suicide is a mass phenomenon. Every year millions of people attempt suicide, while hundreds of thousands succeed in killing themselves. The system of education is undergoing a deep crisis. At the same time, the increasingly aggressive entertainment industry produces mass idiocy. In the USA over one hundred million people are practically illiterate. Instead of education, they are offered gambling. The creation of gambling euphoria is the most perfidious way of corrupting people with the dominant spirit of capitalism based on the separation of value from its appropriation. The unemployment rate is rising dramatically. More and more girls are being subjected to “voluntary” sterilization in order to get a job. A vast majority of people live on credit and are in debt slavery. More and more people have two jobs in order to get by. Life has become a constant humiliation. Democratic institutions are destroyed along with elementary human and civil rights. Fear is widespread. In the USA, the police and secret services “have the right” to enter homes and arrest people without a warrant, to keep them imprisoned without time limits and without the right to a lawyer, to subject them to bestial torture and to kill them. Capitalist terror against citizens is justified by the “fight against terrorism”. American secret services perform spectacular crimes following the Nazi model (burning of the Reichstag), such as the destruction of the Twin Towers in New York and the “attack” on the Pentagon, when nearly 3,000 American people died so that the ruling capitalist groups could freely establish a police state and produce new wars, all that in order to ensure sustainability of the military/industrial complex at the core of the American economy. Spreading fear is the most horrible and most efficient way by which capitalists ensure people’s submission. Hence the escape from everyday life to a world of illusion, offered by the Hollywood film industry and TV stations, has become the most important preoccupation of the citizens of the “free world”.

Capitalism destroys both the basic emancipatory impulses with which the advanced bourgeoisie tore down the walls of feudal society (Enlightenment, the guiding ideas of the French Revolution, philanthropic movement…) and the civilizing (cultural) legacy of civil society without which there is no future. In that way capitalism destroys the historical origins of bourgeois society and establishes a “new” fascism. The champions of contemporary fascism are not the groups of young people “adorned” with the Nazi symbols, but capitalist corporations that, generating the increasing existential and, therefore, overall social crisis, generate a fascist ideology. The ruling principle of monopoly capitalism, “Destroy the competition!”, is a generator of the contemporary fascist practice both in the economic and in the political spheres. The capitalist destruction of the environment and of man as a cultural and biological being conditions the establishment and strengthening of the most reactionary political forces. Not only the possibility of a new society, but also of a “new” (ecocidal) barbarism, is being established by capitalism. There is a conflict within capitalism between these two tendencies. It is both the basis and the framework of the contemporary class struggle, which is not solely about fighting for social justice, but also about fighting for survival. Marx himself indicates the possibility of establishing a (long) period of capitalist barbarism (as well as the possibility of the common destruction of both the ruling and the labor classes), however, this position is not given substantial significance in his theory (and is, therefore, without any obligatory nature) to elaborate any such forms of the development of capitalism and the corresponding forms of a political struggle against it. At the same time, potential capitalist barbarism, according to him, is not of a destructive, but of an anti-libertarian nature. Marx fails to perceive that capitalism, in its essence, represents an ecocidal barbarism of a technical form, and, consequently, that capitalists are ecocidal barbarians.

Ideologues of capitalism use “fascism” as a waste container in which they throw everything which actually presents the crimes of capitalism and speaks of its true nature. At the same time, fascistic darkness becomes a phenomenon relative to which capitalist democracy demonstrates its “humane” value. Instead of a concrete historical antipode: capitalism – humane society, a false antipode is offered: “democracy” – “totalitarianism” (“fascism” and “communism”). In that context, ideologues of capitalism seek to prove that fascism is a phenomenon sui generis and has nothing to do with capitalism. Indeed, fascism is one of the political manifestations of capitalism, more precisely, fascism is the clenched fist of capitalism in crisis – when ruling capitalist groups, to prevent the demise of the ruling order, abolish basic human and civil rights and use the state in order to establish a direct and limitless capitalist dictatorship over the working class and for their (genocidal and ecocidal) colonial expansion. The contemporary situation in the USA and Europe suggests that German fascism was but one of the historical manifestations of fascism and that fascism is the enfant terrible of capitalism.

Capitalism deprives life of its human purpose and thus of the essential. We are witnessing a capitalist leveling: everything is standardized, everything is on the consumer assembly-line turning faster and faster. The promotional postcard of capitalism does not display an imagined man. The “society of the spectacle” (Debord) is the manifestation of a world ruled by destructive nothingness. There are no great events. There is no vision. An impression is being made that everything important that could happen has already happened. All ideas of the past have been “used up”. A great idea does exist, but its voice does not reach the people deafened by commercial ads. A mountain looms out of the fog, but people are blinded by the spotlights of “consumer society” and are unable to see it. There is no thought which could be a critical reflection of life. There is no speculative mediation. In his relation to the world man does not seek to create a humane society. Life itself has become a destruction of reason and the need for reason. The terror of a positive life and a positive ratio has been established. All is a given. The colors of life have waned under the dazzling lights of the “consumer society”. The darkness of death is hidden under colorful propaganda messages. In commercials, everybody is “happy”. The tragic has drowned in “Coca Cola”. Consumer-man has killed homo sapiens.

Capitalism brings people into a special mental state. Consumer madness is not only a manifestation of the destructive madness of capitalism; it is an expression of the need to suppress the pain caused by solitary hopelessness, one of the most fatal products of capitalist civilization. For a hopelessly lonely man to think, he must dive into the abyss. At the same time, to reject thinking means to reject responsibility for cooperating in the destruction of the world. Escape from an increasingly gloomy everyday life becomes an obsession. The less a man is capable of expressing his humanity in the existing world, the more the virtual world becomes a real world. TV programs have become a mental guide for “the masses”. Along with the further development of the existential crisis, the governing regime creates an increasingly aggressive “entertainment industry” by means of which it intends to keep man “in a good mood”, in order to prevent man from experiencing his own existence, from confronting his own misery and pursuing the ways toward liberation. What we have here is the “Titanic syndrome”: as the ship sinks – the music gets louder. Using all available means, the major media make every effort to immerse man in the swamp of “Coca Cola culture”, for only at the point when man poses the question of the future, when he becomes aware of the scale of global destruction – only then does the entire threat of the established “progress” become obvious. It is not by accident that the new generations are, for the first time in history, worse educated than their parents. At the same time, increasingly aggressive and inhuman commercial video clips become “spiritual food” for people. “The average” citizen of the USA is exposed to over 3,000 commercial messages a day. The school system, as an educational institution, faces a growing crisis. The entire cultural heritage of Western civilization, as well as the humanist achievements of other civilizations, is endangered. What we are facing here is a development dictated by the governing system with the task of adjusting the intellectual (educational) level of citizens to its own existential interests, hindering the development of a critical mind that points both at the perils of capitalism and the opportunities for the creation of a new world generated within civil society. The fact is that man has developed production capacities to such an extent and has become so skilled (proficient) that he is able to take into his own hands not only the production management processes, but also the administration of the entirety of social existence. Therefore, the ultimate liberation of humankind from oppression and existential uncertainty is no longer a fantasy, but a realistic prospect. The basic objective of the entertainment industry is to impede the formation of an active, change-oriented connection between established technological development and man’s endeavors to utilize it in order to fulfill his own real needs and provide a more certain future. The increasingly ruthless attacks by the capitalist media on critical reason represent a capitalist response to the growing devastation generated by capitalism and to the already established objective possibilities for man to step beyond the capitalist world into a civilization of freedom. In that context, capitalism deals with humanist education and humanist intelligentsia. On the one hand, capitalism creates “white collars” – a technical intelligentsia, the leading power in the destruction of the planet, which is reduced to specialty idiots, and, on the other hand, “blue collars” – a manipulated work force deprived of even an elementary education. The consequences are more and more visible. After living so many years in a capitalist civilization and after such “progress”, an increasing number of people become the victims of the darkest ideologies, the morbidity of which exceeds anything that history has seen so far. In the USA alone there are thousands of “satanic” sects, the direct result of a ruthless destruction of people’s spiritual integrity. “Consumer society” throws man into the abyss of spiritual hopelessness, where he is met by dark powers offering to “fulfill his needs” by manipulative means with which capital turns them into mindless “consumers”. For a man lost in the darkness even the burning stake represents a source of light and a signpost.

The myth of “free media” and “democratic publicity” in the West is finally dead. It is now clear just how united the Western propaganda machinery is when it comes to the protection of the strategic interests of the most powerful capitalist states. By using scientifically led and technically perfected propaganda, a specific “mood” is created so that the public begins to accept the annihilation of whole nations as a “humane” act. Instead of, by the “development of democracy”, enabling the citizens to make independent judgments on vital social issues, we have a “public opinion” which is the product of the biggest information centers, peculiar fabricators of lies and half-truths in the hands of the most powerful capitalist clans and leading political groups. At the same time, thanks to new technical devices, the leading information media established a global monopoly over information. “Western democracy” is on the road to beating the practices of the worst totalitarian regimes. In light of the governing tendencies in the development of capitalism, even the darkest Orwellian hunches resemble a children’s story.

What is the point of philosophy in the contemporary capitalist world dominated by destruction, where humanity has been pushed to the edge of the abyss? Ideologues of capitalism create an illusion that the ruling relation to reality is based on a certain way of thinking, which means that it has a rational nature. Philosophy has become a “rational” echo of destructive capitalist irrationality. It is but one of the humanist masks of an inhumane and destructive civilization and, as such, is a commercial for capitalism. It provides and strengthens a way of thinking which, like religion, is deprived of critical self-reflection and prevents man from becoming aware of the tendencies of global development and the objective possibilities of liberation which via subjective practice (political struggle) can turn into real possibilities for freedom. At the same time, “philosophizing” is reduced to the creation of a network of formally and logically consistent concepts that are to mediate between man and the world. Philosophy has become a means for confusing reason and distracting it from the crucial questions. Contemporary bourgeois philosophers disqualify reason as the most authentic and most important human means for ensuring survival and freedom. It is reduced to an instrumentalized ratio and has become the means for mystification of the existing world and for the destruction of a visionary consciousness that offers a possibility of overcoming capitalism and creating a new world. Philosophy has become a technical subject and, as such, is a means for turning concrete existential and essential questions into abstract theoretical questions. Instead of a revolutionary concept, the dominant concept is that of conformism. Instead of a fight to eradicate the causes of non-freedom and destruction, a theoretical discussion about consequences is being imposed. The bourgeois theory offers a critique of capitalism which does not question it and which seeks to “perfect” it. “The essence of capitalism” acquires an idolized dimension and becomes the basis for criticizing capitalist reality. Thus the mythologized past becomes the basis for criticizing the present. Everything that might and should happen has already happened. A struggle for the future becomes a struggle for the past. The bourgeois intelligentsia multiplies the “field of research” by creating numerous “grey areas”, primarily to expand its space as much as possible. It acts like the market: it produces increased quantities of intellectual goods with ever-lower quality, which are sold in the form of books, lectures, studies, and reports. Max Horkheimer came to the conclusion half a century ago that serious philosophy was nearing its end and that society was becoming an anthill. Philosophers contribute to that state of affairs as they do not develop a philosophy that departs from the emancipatory legacy of civil society and national cultures, they rather adjust to a ruling order that does not need a wise man, but an idiotized consumer. Philosophy becomes an entertaining skill, while philosophers become the “fools” of capitalism.

Purposefulness and thus the quality of philosophic thought are determined by whether this thought poses concrete historic questions. Today, in a world which faces an ever more realistic possibility of destruction, that principle means that concrete historical questions might be the last questions posed by man. It is that quality which makes a difference between today’s concrete historical questions and all the earlier concrete historical questions. The development of capitalism as a totalitarian order of destruction imposes the question of survival as the most important concrete historical question. Actually, by bringing humanity to the brink of destruction, capitalism ”has answered” all crucial questions. Bearing in mind the intensity of the capitalist destruction of life, all questions come down to one: what can be done to prevent the destruction of humanity? The only meaningful thought is of an existential character, meaning, it creates the possibility for a political (changing) practice that will prevent the world’s destruction. In that context, philosophy is meaningful as a critique of capitalism and a visionary projection of a future world. There is a need for creating an integrating critical and visionary thought with an existential nature, which will contain the emancipatory legacy of civil society and national cultures. Humanity will again appreciate the importance of serious thinking when people return to the basic existential questions. The seriousness of those questions will make people serious: crucial existential issues will eliminate a trivial way of thinking and direct the mind towards the essential issues. Riding on the wave of the French bourgeois revolution, classical German philosophy shaped the self-consciousness of modern man. Today, the humanist intelligentsia should shape a thought that will be the guiding thought of the last revolution in the history of mankind. It is not the howl of Minerva’s owl in the twilight, but a war cry of a man who has been awakened and who is ready not only to liberate humanity from oppression, but to prevent its destruction. Ultimately, what is philosophy if it is not capable of answering the questions that are of vital importance for human destiny?

The 1854 letter from the chief of the Seattle tribe to the American President Franklin Pierce indicates the important limitations on modern philosophy with respect to basic existential issues. It is a sobering truth that modern man does not turn to the greatest thinkers of the modern age in order to find answers to the critical existential issues, but turns to a man who by the predominant criteria for evaluation has the status of a “savage”. The Indian chief’s letter indicates that all modern Western thought has gone astray. It depicts the true nature of capitalism and the basic tendency of its development better than all the philosophical and sociological thought of the XIX and XX centuries. The Indian chief’s letter, at the same time, indicates that the question of being, as one of the central “traditional” philosophical questions, cannot be viewed any longer at the essential level. Being, as a symbolic source of authentic humanity and a mirror where man can see his authentic human image, above all else means the affirmation of man’s life-creating powers acquiring a concrete historical dimension with respect to capitalism as a totalitarian destructive order. The fact that the letter was written in the mid-XIX century is of primary importance as it refutes the claim that at that time it was not possible to see the ecocidal nature of capitalism. The words of the Indian chief not only show the limitations of Western scientific and philosophical thought, but also that it is not necessary to have science and philosophy in order to recognize the true nature of capitalism. The truth that capitalism is an anti-existential order is based on immediate empirical evidence. This was the guiding thought of Fourier when, in the early XIX century, he questioned (capitalist) “progress”, suggesting that it is based on the destruction of forests, fields, sources of water, climate…

A specificity of the contemporary historical moment, that is, a specificity of capitalism as a system of destruction, also conditions the specific view of the past. The ruling ideology sterilizes the libertarian and change-oriented charge of philosophical thought and reduces it to a lifeless “history of philosophy”, which becomes a vehicle for the destruction of the libertarian and life-creating power of reason. Critical theory, based upon existential humanism, needs to create the possibility for “reviving” the creative and libertarian spirit of our ancestors by engaging it in the fight for survival and for the creation of a new world. In the struggle for humankind’s survival, the past thought has to realize its own humanistic, i.e., existential and libertarian, potential. The deepening existential crisis forces man to focus on the basic existential issues and, in that context, to integrate the libertarian and cultural heritage of humankind and to rid it of any “tails” that only weaken the combat and drive the mind astray. The “fullness of humanity”, in the sense of perceiving man from a historical prospective, is conditioned by increasingly dramatic existential challenges. The libertarian past needs to become a source of man’s life-creating energy in the struggle for the survival of humankind. A “return” to the mythological past is justified only if it is to revitalize libertarian and life-creating myths. Otherwise, it amounts to driving reason astray, and is, regardless of personal motives, of an anti-existential nature.

In relation to man, the capitalist world has become a totalitarian and destructive power to such an extent that it loses the need for scientific knowledge, as it has become, in the hands of capitalists, an anti-humane and anti-living power. At the same time, an escape from knowledge becomes an escape from responsibility for the world’s survival. The awareness that a group of capitalist fanatics can momentarily destroy the world, as well as the awareness of an increasing possibility of destroying the environment and thus humanity, itself, bring man, stuck in the living mud of “consumer society”, to the brink of madness. An escape from knowledge is a “natural” defense mechanism. The ruling scientific thought reduces the reality of capitalism to the “facts” enabling a “scientific view” according to which capitalism has no alternative, which means that all “problems” can be “overcome” in capitalism itself by “perfecting” it in a technical way and by technical means. The capitalist vision of the future has a “scientific” character. The myth of the “omnipotence of science and technology” has become a means for the creation of a capitalistically degenerated religious consciousness and, in that context, the image of the future. The vision of “paradise”, in which the “souls of the deceased are united in God”, is replaced by the vision of a “perfect technical world”. Everything is mediated by money; everything acquires a trivial dimension – including the relation towards death. Ideologues of capitalism promise man (rich “elite”) “immortality”, which will be provided by creating technical devices that will enable the “revival” of frozen corpses. Scientists have become the capitalists paid murderers and the driving force in the destruction of the world. A vast majority of scientists are engaged in the production of weapons of mass destruction, devices for mass control, the genetic distortion of man, the destruction of nature, the manipulation and idiotization of people… Scientific knowledge has been deprived not only of its human purpose; it has acquired an anti-existential nature.

The “invasion of space” has made man face the immense universe in a way that reduces the earth to a tiny cosmic speck that can disappear at any moment. The awareness of the cosmic position of the earth and humanity makes any striving for survival meaningless. Scientific knowledge produces a fear of survival but does not offer any solutions – since solutions do not abide in the sphere of science but in everyday life. Asteroids, comets, supernovas, black holes, anti-matter – all these phenomena become the projections of a fear of destruction created by capitalism as a destructive order. Relations between people are not based on man’s need for another man, which means on man’s need to do something which will contribute to a better humanity, but are mediated by catastrophic scenarios, which make meaningless any engagement that can open new spaces of freedom and increase the possibility of man’s survival. Thus capitalism, which more and more dramatically jeopardizes mankind’s survival, as the only real danger for mankind, “disappears” in the cataclysmic projection of the “future”. It is not his inability to confront natural cataclysms, but his conformism and loneliness that make modern man turn to mysticism and other forms of escapism and find the meaning of life in irrational spheres. It is not the endless universe, but his lonely hopelessness that produces fear when man looks up at the skies. Understanding the infinite as an openness, which means as a possibility of endless development of man’s creative powers and the space of freedom, is conditioned by the creation of a humane social order here on the earth. Only the development of human relations, which means the feeling that he is not alone on the earth, creates the feeling that man is not alone in the universe and gives meaning to human life. Young people embracing in the vast blue universe do not see danger but only an endless space of future.

 As for the justification of “cosmic programs”, their primary purpose is not to make money, but their military character. They also serve to create an impression that man’s life on the earth is temporary and that technical means can ensure the “eternal” existence of humanity in the universe. The earth becomes insignificant relative to the vast cosmic space offered to man by the entertainment industry as a virtual world. Young people are enchanted by spectacular cosmic visions at the same time that capitalism systematically destroys life on the planet. The Hollywood film industry creates the impression that cosmic constellations are reachable and that “conquering other planets” is the imminent future. Time and universe are relativized and thus the notion of the real time in which we live is lost. To link humanity’s near future to cosmic vastness is the fatal illusion created by the Hollywood film industry. At the same time, historical time is turned into abstract time in which, in the virtual cosmic space, the capitalist world is reproduced at a “higher” technological level. Technology becomes a means for creating the illusion that the cosmic “world” is established by the ruling principles of the capitalist order: the principle of profit becomes the ruling cosmic principle. The earth becomes a springboard for “conquering the universe”, and celestial bodies are the raw material and, as such, are subject to exploitation. The universe becomes the source of capitalist expansion where the struggle is led for controlling the resources and where there is a constant danger (in the form of bloodthirsty “aliens” acquiring the status of cosmic “terrorists”), which inevitably conditions and justifies the development of increasingly lethal military weapons that will, of course, be used to eliminate the “surplus” of the “maladjusted” here on the earth so that the most powerful capitalist corporations can gain control over the earthly sources of raw materials and energy. Importantly, “space projects” are not meant to create the myth of “the limitless possibilities of the development of science and technology“ – they become the means for creating the myth of “the limitless possibilities of the development of capitalism”. Ultimately, the “invasion of space” does not improve the state of humanity and does not increase the possibility of human survival, but hinders the fight against capitalism and contributes to the development of new mechanisms of domination, manipulation and destruction.

Since manipulation of people does not proceed only in the ideological, but above all in the psychological sphere, art reduced to the technique of manipulation with images and symbols acquires the utmost importance. Its primary role is not to create a “cultural” decor for the ruling order, but to distort man and all the symbols by which he can reach his libertarian, creative, life-creating and social being. Capitalistically degenerated art mutilates the human with an “artistic” form, which acquires a spectacular dimension. The “spectacle” does not only serve to deceive – it does not only prevent man from seeing the important, but kills in him his human being and thus the very possibility to see the important. A blind man is not blind. Blind is the man who cannot see humanity in the other. Capitalism eliminates from culture the esthetic criteria for evaluation based on traditional forms of artistic expression and the emancipatory legacy of civil society – which seek to confront formalism and the destruction of the human. Instead of something new, a variety of the same is offered. Instead of ideas opening a space in the future, new techniques are offered, destroying man’s need to fantasize and his visionary consciousness. Capitalistically degenerated art has become a spectacular kitsch. Its value is determined not according to esthetical, but to market criteria, whereas the success of an advertizing campaign determines the “value” of a work of art, while depriving money of any value equivalent. As for the “mondialistic culture”, how can universal cultural values be reached if the legacy of national cultures is discarded? The emancipatory legacy of national cultures is not only the source of people’s cultural, but also of their libertarian and life-creating consciousness. The overcoming of national cultures by a universal human culture is possible only through the development of the emancipatory legacy of national cultures. When it comes to the relation between universality and collectivism, they need not be opposed to each other if collectivism is not based on “the masses”, but on emancipated personalities. Universal human values should be the basis of collectivism, whereas collectivity should not mean the abolishment of individuality, but a community of emancipated human beings. At the same time, universality cannot be the privilege of individuals who perceive themselves as the “elite”. It is actually the class principle, but behind the veil of a “struggle for the individual”. A typical example is Nietzsche, who speaks of a “superman” as, actually, the anthropological manifestation of a “new nobility”, which means of the ruling class (plutocracy). Walter Benjamin believed that technical means can supersede the elitist character of art and bring it closer to the workers. A capitalistically degenerated technique deprived art of elitist exclusivity by depriving it of its humane essence. It destroys man’s creative being and thus does away with art’s possessing an aura that emanates from the human, which contains an emancipatory heritage of humanity and suggests what is not yet, but what might be. The development of an “esthetical sense” is achieved by destroying the sense of the human. It turns out that there is no use in making art a means for changing the world if it is not an integral part of a comprehensive political movement seeking to create a new world. Thus a distinction should be made between a false (capitalistically degenerated) art and a libertarian and genuine art. The role of a libertarian art is to unmask the true nature of capitalism; to create the vision of a new world; to indicate objective possibilities for the creation of a new world and, most importantly, to develop man’s need for another man – as the basis of a genuine socialization without which no political movement can save the world from destruction. As to art as a reflection of human misery, which is as such an alienated form of de-alienation, a vision of life appears as an artistic act where man’s social being becomes his realized creative being.

Capitalism destroys man as a spiritual being. Metaphysical mysticism and religious fanaticism are but another side of the “technical civilization”, which deprived life of meaning and turned man into the means for capital reproduction. Religion is less and less a spiritual need, and more and more an escape from capitalist nothingness and the expression of a fear of disappearance. In contemporary capitalism, to appeal to God is, actually, a way in which the petite-bourgeoisie gets rid of its responsibility for destroying the world. Religion used to be a means for the development of capitalism (Protestantism), only to become a tool for doing away with spirituality and life. In spite of the fact that capitalism destroys spirituality, churches do their best to preserve it. They survive by discarding the humanist legacy of religion, which offered a possibility of establishing a critical relation towards capitalism and the spiritual integration of humanity, and become part of the mechanism of capitalist reproduction and as such are lay institutions using religion in order to deify private property and class order. The leading religions are not only a means for doing away with the emancipatory legacy of bourgeois society, but also with the faith that life on the earth can be preserved. The claim that man is “but a guest on this Earth”, the concept of  “judgment day”, the idea that life on the earth is “worthless” and that “true life” begins in heaven – indicate that the so called “great religions” complement capitalism as a destructive order. The idea of an illusory “heavenly world” (“paradise”) becomes not only a means for devaluating the fight for a just world, but also a means for devaluating life and escaping responsibility for the destruction of the world. Apocalyptic fatalism breeds defeatism. From a means for destroying man’s libertarian dignity, religion turned into a tool for destroying the will to live. In spite of everything, religion cannot be identified with church dogmas and church activities. Although church religion has become an anti-existential thought, an increasing number of religious people, who are aware of the fatal character of capitalist “progress”, are trying to affirm the idea that the “world is God’s creation” and that man must fight to preserve it. Ultimately, people are not divided into atheists and theists, but into those who fight for capitalism and those who fight against capitalism – to preserve life on the planet and create a humane world.

However, the importance of the letter written by the chief of the Seattle tribe to American President Franklin Pierce suggests that there is a change in attitude towards religions that insist on the “maternal” principle and see in the earth the “weaving factory of life”. The “principle of Earth” (as the “Great Mother”) appears as the antipode to the “principle of heaven” (“God the Father”). At the same time, man is not the “master and owner of nature” (Descartes), nor is he the one who by way of labor and the conquered powers of nature (technology) turns it into useful objects (Marx), but is a “thread in the weaving factory of life”. Man is part of nature and his survival is directly dependent on the survival of nature as a whole. The world is a life-creating organic whole by which everything, being mutually conditioned, is interconnected. The survival of the whole depends on the survival of the parts, which are existentially interdependent, whereas the survival of each and every part is conditioned by the survival of the whole. The fight for survival is not based on the Social Darwinist principle “the fight of all against all” (on which liberal capitalism is based), but on the coexistence of everybody with everybody including (both living and non-living) nature, which enables human survival. Instead of a “perfecting” of the animal species according to the principle “the survival of the fittest”, the dominant principle is that the survival of every living being is the basic precondition for the survival of all, whereas the survival of living beings extends to the environment – without which there is no life. That is why the Indian chief anthropomorphizes or humanizes rivers, prairies, mountains… According to Darwin, living beings mutate by adapting to the environment, and those who fail shall perish. The Indian chief bears in mind the natural environment in which he lives, which means he has in mind man’s struggle to stop changes in nature and the living world that might jeopardize his survival. His interpretation of the relation between man and nature does not appear in relation to natural processes, but in relation to a new way of treating nature brought about by the white man (capitalism) and thus to people living in natural surroundings. The white man is to blame for spoiling the existential balance in nature, based on the coexistence of living beings and the natural (living) environment, threatening the survival of both animals and man. It is no more a question of man’s mutation caused by man’s adjustment to his natural living environment, but the question of man’s mutation brought about by capitalism and adjustment by technical means to a technical world. It does not lead to the perfection of the human species, but to its degeneration and destruction. Darwin concerned himself with the origin and evolvement of animal species; the Indian chief is concerned with the survival of the animal species – and man. Nature becomes a unique living (life-creating) organism and acquires an integrating ontological dimension through the idea of “mother” as the “weaver of life”. The Indian chief argues for a life-creating pantheism. His philosophy of life comes from the philosophy of life of the Indians: the way of providing the means for living determines the relation to nature. By living as part of nature and unable to influence nature and thus ensure existence, the Indians were particularly vulnerable to the disturbance of the established balance in nature. Their relation to the buffalo is highly illustrative. For existential reasons, they did not want to decrease the number of buffalo and killed only as many as was necessary. Capitalism “overcame” the maternal (generative) and paternal (creative) principle by the productive principle based on the absolutized principle of profit with a technical form and destructive nature. Today man should treat nature in a way that can enable the revival of its life-creating powers – as a life-creating whole. Instead of domination of the generative or creative principle, they should be united so that the creative principle becomes a humanized generative principle. In that context, technology can acquire an artistic dimension.

In the jaws of capitalism everything acquires a distorted (commercialized and destructive) dimension: “means for information” become the means for misinforming the citizens and distorting the truth; “philosophy” becomes the means for destroying the mind; “science” becomes the means for controlling the natural laws in a way that destroys nature and man as a biological being; “art” becomes the means for destroying man’s creative being; “play” (sport, above all) becomes the means for destroying man’s playing being; “medicine” and “pharmacology” become the means for creating the profitably diseased; “religion” becomes the means for destroying spirituality and life…

Traditionally, the woman is reduced to the procreative principle. Her social position was determined by her generative functions. In that context, the man as an emancipated social being is not the basis for the constitution of society, it is the family reduced to the biological cell of society, whereas the man is the pater familias and as such an undisputed authority in the formation of the social hierarchy of power. By becoming an emancipated working force, which means by becoming financially independent from her father and husband, the woman only formally acquired political rights and competed with men on the labor market as a consumer: the body becomes the “source of pleasure” (liberation of sensuality, right to feeling satisfaction in sexual relations, active role in searching for a partner). In contemporary capitalism, instead of being an incubator enabling the biological reproduction of society, the woman has become a tool ensuring the reproduction of capital; instead of the martyr’s saintly halo, the woman has acquired a working-hedonistic aura; instead of a one-sided exploitation of women, capitalism has established a universal exploitation of women. She is reduced to a housewife and prostitute, a working force and consumer, mother and advertising doll, policewoman and soldier, capitalist and politician… At the same time, the woman’s body has become the object of total exploitation. Literally every part of the woman’s body, from nails to womb, has become the means for the creation of profit. A “sportswoman” is a typical example of how capitalism degenerates women. She seeks, through the value (“productive”) mechanism that devalues her as a human being and destroys her as a natural being, to acquire affirmation and ensure existence. It is not only a virilisation, but also a robotization of the woman, who, as a “record breaker“ has become a moving billboard for capitalist companies and the means for proving the “progressive” character of capitalism. Writing about “feminist socialism”, Marcuse sees in the “female principle” the opposite of the productive principle as the ruling principle of capitalism. The woman, by her specificities, appears as a potential carrier of human emancipation. Without reducing the woman to her generative function, the “female principle” can be considered as a life-creating principle. The woman is an anthropological manifestation of the life-creating power of the living world and thus is a symbolical being. The process of evolution of the living world proceeds from the womb. The position of the woman in society shows the anti-existential nature of capitalism. The capitalist form of “woman’s emancipation” turned into destruction of the woman as a generative being, and thus the destruction of society’s reproductive ability. The assurance of biological reproduction is an example of socialization (giving birth and bringing up children as a social question) being the basic existential and in that context the basic essential principle of society.

Capitalism destroys man as a social being. Loneliness is spreading like the plague. There are no longer any authentic human relations in which man can be realized as an erotic, emotional, spiritual and creative being. Capitalist “socialization” is reduced to a struggle between people, to lies, frauds, crimes… In the modern world, which degenerated human relations, nothing is more efficient in destroying man’s need for another man as man’s contact with another man. A man’s fear of another man is one of the most horrible crimes committed by capitalism against humanity. Human relations acquire a technical and destructive character, while man becomes a mechanical and destructive being. Sports and music “spectacles”, beer festivals, disco-clubs, supermarkets and shopping malls, pedestrian areas in town centers and the like – all these are but forms of the capitalist production of “socialization” deprived of spontaneity and humanity. It is reduced to the creation of a “mass”, whose behavior conditions the process of a destructive (“consumer”) capitalist reproduction, which means a totally commercialized life. Capitalism turns man from a social being into a consumer being, and society from a community of emancipated people into a consumer crowd. The mega-market has become the most important social space and queuing in front of the cashier is the most authentic form of socialization in modern capitalism. Sales and the accompanying “consumer stampede” are some of the most monstrous forms of capitalist humiliation.

As far as the Internet is concerned, the increasing possibilities of technical “communication” are becoming a substitute for the decreasing possibilities of authentic human communication. Instead of establishing direct contacts, people establish “relationships” via a “tailored” image after the model of a “successful bloke” according to the standards of the ruling values, which means through man’s self-degradation and self-mutilation. Anonymity, the possibility of an interruption at any moment, the possibility of constant “transformation” and “upgrading” – all these are mediators in the “communication”. The computer screen does not show the true picture of a man, but his mask. The Internet does not serve to establish interpersonal contacts, but technical relations where people are “freed” from the sensual, erotic, emotional, and ultimately from social existence and social mediation. The screen shows the images one cannot feel, touch, look in the eyes of… Images without a smell, voice, warmth… One becomes “free” from the world where man cannot realize his humanity as he is reduced to a technically disguised apparition. The worst thing is that young people accept being thrown into the virtual world. It is the conformist “answer” for a lonely man stuck in the mud of capitalist hopelessness. To accept the virtual world means, in fact, to accept the existing world where there is no place for youth, love, future… Ultimately, it is about removing any possibility of people getting together and acting as political subjects – striving to eradicate the causes of misery. To destroy man as a social being by means of technology and the “consumer” way of life is the most efficient way toward his depolitization.

The final process of the capitalist degeneration of man as a human and biological being is under way. It is about the creation of a “mondialist man” suited to the nature of contemporary capitalism. He is deprived of a libertarian and visionary consciousness, particularly of the responsibility for the destruction of the world. The basic task of the “mondialists” is to purify the world of its libertarian history and national cultures and turn it into a capitalist concentration camp. The Indian chief observes, better than any theoretician, that capitalism degenerates the senses and thus prevents man from perceiving the world in the right way, which above all means as a human being, and consequently from experiencing the world in which he lives. Capitalism turns nature into waste material and forces man to adapt to the new “surroundings” – depriving him of qualities peculiar to living beings and turning him into a zombie. This is the purpose of bourgeois philosophy, art, science, the entertainment industry – the “consumer” way of life. The Indian chief indicates that the white man does not sense bad smell – just like a person on his deathbed. “Bad smell” is synonymous not only with the destruction of life, but also with the destruction of man as a living being: “bad smell” is a synonym for death. Hollywood freaks, like “terminators”, are symbolic representations of the mondialist spirit of contemporary capitalism. Their anthropomorphic appearance enables people to identify with the limitless destructive powers of technоlogy. The suppressed needs are satisfied in a way that kills the human element. In the cosmological version offered by positivist science, man becomes part of the universe at an atomized level, which means by being deprived of his specific nature as a living and spiritual being. From such a conception arises the idea of a man-machine cyborg – a modern Frankenstein. Contrary to that, religion deprives man of his body and reduces him to the “spirit.” In both cases, man is deprived of his peculiar human nature, which means of his (self)creative being and libertarian dignity – and that is what makes man a specific cosmic being and the human world a specific universe.

The current crisis of capitalism is not a “temporary” crisis that will disappear all by itself. It is not about an “economic”, “financial” or “organizational” crisis, but about the existential crisis of capitalism which arises from its nature. It is based on the development of capitalism as a destructive order which experienced its climax in the so-called “consumer society”, which questioned not only the emancipatory heritage of bourgeois society, including elementary human and civil rights, but also the survival of mankind. The financial crisis did not cause the crisis of capitalism, it is but one of the consequences of the crisis of capitalism based on the absolutized principle of private property. It was caused by the need to resolve the problem of hyper-production by providing an accelerated capitalist development. The increase in demand was not caused by an increase in productivity and volume of production and thus an increase in the workers’ salaries, but by excessive sub-prime credits, ultimately by uncovered securities. Money became worthless as it was no longer covered by real production. It existed only on paper and on computer screens. Zeros were added through financial transactions. The financial world has become the virtual world of capitalism.

By becoming a global order, capitalism created a global existential crisis. The Western world used to be the synonym for the “capitalist world”. Today, there are globally dispersed economic centers, which question the dominance of the West by conquering world markets through an ever-increasing destruction of nature and man as a human and biological being. In the increasingly ruthless struggle for survival, capitalist concerns destroy the very foundations of mankind’s survival. It is a fatal illusion that mankind can create a new world by tracing the path of capitalist globalism, as Antonio Negri claims. It is only in the fight against capitalism that the emancipatory heritage of bourgeois society, which means the germ of a novum, can give life to a new society. At the same time, it is only in the fight against capitalism that the destruction of life on the planet can be stopped. Capitalistically degenerated mankind cannot create a new world on burned forests, in hopelessly contaminated soil, on polluted rivers and seas, on nuclear wastes, in the remorselessly scorching sun… The capitalist development of productive forces does not enhance the certainty of human survival, as Marx argues, but questions it more and more dramatically. Therefore, instead of engendering optimism, capitalist “progress” generates fear of the future. The most perilous characteristic of capitalism is related to the fact that, from the results of life-destruction, it creates a source of profit and, thus, a basis for its own further development, where man’s creative powers become a vehicle for the development of the destructive powers of capitalism and for acceleration of the destruction process. Capitalism has become a self-reproducing mechanism of destruction, which, to the living world, represents what a malignant tumor represents to an organism: it extends its own lifetime by devouring all that provides humankind with a chance for survival. This does not refer only to the systematic, but to the ultimate destruction of life on the planet.

 The row over the “ecological destruction of the planet” made by political leaders of the most advanced capitalist states does not express the true endeavors to prevent the destruction of the earth; it expresses the strivings to prevent the ecological destruction of the world from becoming a political platform for the oppressed to unite themselves and radicalize their struggle against capitalism. At the same time, the capitalist centers of power strive to use the ecological destruction of the planet, brought about by their ecocidal practices, to seize the territories that are not already under their direct control and establish a (neo)colonial domination over all the world. As far as “ecological engineering” is concerned, it primarily serves to create the illusion that capitalism can, by means of science and technology, heal its fatal effects. The employment of science and technology for the purpose of “repairing” the eco-system, on the basis of the growth of capitalism, will only lead to even more fatal climate changes. Man cannot (and should not) manage the ecological system, but must eliminate the causes of its destruction. The destruction of capitalism, which became a totalitarian order of destruction and the establishment of a human relation to nature, is the basic precondition for reestablishing the ecological balance and renewing man’s natural being.

In capitalism, politics is reduced to the technique of directing people’s discontent toward the achievement of the political and economic interests of the ruling class. This is a logic suited to the nature of the “consumer society”, the last stage in the development of capitalism, where the consequences of the destruction of nature and man as a natural and reasonable being become the means for the reproduction of capitalism. At the same time, the dominant logic of monopolistic capitalism, appearing as the principles “Destroy the competition!” and “Big fish devour small fish!”, has become the totalizing logic which, via the media held by capitalist clans, acquires a fatal dimension. This is the basis of the view that “globalization”, which implies the neo-liberal model of capitalism, is a “must”. Political decisions are not based on objective scientific analysis; on the contrary, scientific analysis is based on the strategic interests of the ruling order. Science is reduced to the means of enabling the survival of capitalism. In this respect, the basic scientific, historical and philosophical truth that is rejected a priori is that capitalism is a historical order, implying that its demise is unavoidable. Without a fierce human action that will eliminate the causes of the general misery, dissatisfaction created by the deepening crisis of capitalism can become a driving force in the development of (contemporary) fascism – which happened in Germany and other European countries after the great depression of 1929.

Those who fight for “Western democracy” point out the “freedom of capital” as the main criterion defining its existence. Capital acquired the status of an earthly divinity and as such has become an undisputed power over man. Here we shall again point out that “democracy” is a political form of the domination of capital over people. It implies that the “development of democracy” means to reinforce the rule of capital over people and that “democracy is threatened” not only when basic human and civil rights are in danger, but when the power of capital over man is jeopardized. This truth is confirmed every day in the most advanced capitalist countries of the West, particularly in the USA. In practice, “democracy” has become the means for dealing with the guiding ideas of the French bourgeois revolution on which modern humanism is based, as well as with the basic human (droits de l’homme) and civil rights (droits de citoyen) as the foundation of modern law. The more man’s right to life, to freedom, to health and a healthy environment, to work and a certain quality of existence, to freedom of speech, a family and unquestionable living space and personal life, is endangered, the more politicians praise “democracy”. Ironically, democracy, which originally meant the “rule of the people” (demos krateos), in capitalism means an order in which citizens are reduced to a working and consuming crowd – to slaves of capital. Capitalist “democracy” is not based on human and civil rights, but on the absolutized principle of profit, which in turn is based on the absolutized principle of private property. All that protects private property and enables a “free” increase in profit is justified and welcome. When private property is the absolute principle, then the worst crimes are legal and legitimate if they serve to prevent the disintegration of the ruling order. Man’s right to freedom and life is subordinated to the right of capitalism to survival. The great economic crisis in the 1930s, as well as the current deepening capitalist crisis, suggests that capitalists are ready to use all available means to cope with the consequences of the crisis that can jeopardize the ruling system. The destruction of the Twin Towers in New York and the “attack” on the Pentagon speak of the nature of capitalism and tell us that capitalists are prepared to commit all manner of crimes in order to maintain the established order.

Contemporary man does not only face the ideological, military and police terror of the governing order, as occurred in the past, but also the accumulated destructive powers of capitalism. The spirit of destructive barbarism dominates capitalism, conditioning both the activities of the ruling class and its defense strategy. Usage of atomic, hydrogen and neutron bombs, lethal viruses, starvation of populations, pollution and devastation of water supplies, etc., (that will exterminate hundreds of millions of people and irreversibly contaminate the natural environment) represents – for the capitalistically degenerated international plutocratic “elite” – a “justified measure”, if in that manner the existence of capitalism can be prolonged. In order to prevent the fall of capitalism, the fanatics of capitalism are ready to destroy humankind and all life on the planet. The NATO aggression on Serbia in the spring 1999, which compelled Serbia to become a part of the American “new world order”, demonstrates the actual nature of capitalism. More than 32,000 depleted uranium missiles were dropped on Serbia, thus causing a contamination of the natural environment equivalent to the effects of more than 470 of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Seven years after the bombing of Serbia, the number of people with cancer has increased by 40%, with a tendency towards a dramatic increase in the number of diseased and deceased. In the course of the next 500 years, the life of people living in the bombed areas will be directly conditioned by the consequences of nuclear contamination of the soil, water, air, animals, plants… What happened to the citizens of Serbia occurs all over the planet. Their future is predetermined by consequences generated by destructive capitalist barbarism of a global and totalitarian nature.

In the light of the fire caused by the bombing of Serbia by NATO, we can reach the true answer to the question of what can be expected from “civilized” Europe. The entire European political “elite” knew that NATO would bomb Serbia by cluster bombs and projectiles containing depleted uranium, just as it was aware of the lethal consequences for the population and the environment. Instead of opposing the ecocide that inevitably leads to a “silent” genocide in the bombed region, the ruling European politicians with a slavish enthusiasm participated in the American crime. As far as the European intellectuals are concerned, the disquieting truth is that many of them joined the bombing campaign under a monstrous motto: “As soon and as much as possible!” . Considering the scale of demonization of the Serbian people in “civilized” Europe and the USA, people like Harold Pinter and Peter Handke, should be credited for daring to speak up in opposition to the modern ecocidal fascism and for being in the frontline of defending the dignity of the European humanist heritage.

The deepening crisis of capitalism creates the atmosphere of a final class struggle on a global scale. The fear among the ruling capitalist cliques that “the masses might rise up”, created a “terrorist threat” that became an excuse for abolishing basic human and civil rights. The main objective of the “fight against terrorism” is to create, through controlled media, an existential panic that will make citizens obediently accept such “protection from the terrorist threat” as provided by the ruling order, which involves depriving the citizens of their basic human and civil rights. We are witnessing a totalitarian “integration of society” under the domination of the most reactionary political forces. Tens of millions of cameras, implanted bugs and chips, similar to the chips implanted in dogs and cattle, entering flats, kidnapping, torture, “silent” liquidations, total control of the media, deployment of special military units in towns… “The fight against terrorism” is, actually, a form of open dictatorship, by which capitalists declare war against their fellow citizens.

In contemporary capitalism man does not lose his freedom, as Peter Sloterdijk claims, he becomes fettered in new chains. Basically, it is about establishing totalitarian control over man, which is possible only because people are stuck in the mud of the consumer society and there is a dominant conformist mentality. A petit-bourgeois accepts the loss of basic human and civil rights only to increase his consumer standard. The “freedom” of a petit-bourgeois comes down to his ability to buy and destroy. For him, the capitalist order is acceptable as long as it offers him the possibility to “enjoy” spending and destruction. Actually, a petit-bourgeois actively participates in the creation of a totalitarian state and totalitarian society based on the fact that capitalistically conditioned life has become man’s terror. The capitalistically degenerated petit-bourgeois is full of a discontent increasingly manifested as a destructive mania directed towards everything living. Instead of a need for a just and free world, the dominant need is for destruction with more and more destructive technical means. The purpose of “action” is to vent discontent in the way and by the means imposed by capitalism as a destructive order. A typical example is the frequent mass murders committed by individuals. It is a protest by a capitalistically degenerated man who employs capitalistically degenerated methods and means of “struggle”. Considering the growing number of increasingly lethal weapons in the hands of more and more people, there is an ever-greater possibility that people will mutually exterminate each other. The destruction carried out by technical means which can achieve an instant effect becomes a model for behavior imposed by the life-ruling logic of capitalism expressed in the principle Destroy the competition!”. This logic conditions both relations among individuals, races, nations, states, capitalist corporations, and the relation towards the living world and environment… Destruction of people and nature becomes the basic condition of the “development” of capitalist “democracy”. What madness!

As far as American “foreign policy” is concerned, it is a response to the deepening economic crisis in the USA and comes down to the endeavors to “control” the world so as to transfer the burden of the crisis in their own society to other peoples and thus prevent the economic collapse of the USA. At the same time, there is a monopoly of a small circle of people, representing the most powerful capitalist clans, over the military means with which mankind can be destroyed in seconds. In this way a possibility is created for the self-will of individuals and their deranged mental state (alcohol, drugs, political and religious fanaticism, hatred towards the “opponent” and the human race, feelings of inferiority, cowardice, blind revenge and the like) might bring about the destruction of humanity. Concerning the strategy of survival of “small countries”, events in the world evermore dramatically indicate how fatal is the strategy of “defending the national interests” based on crawling before the mighty. This strategy has turned out to be not only humiliating, but fatal for national survival.

Capitalism has not only degenerated nature, but society as well. It has criminalized everyday life to such an extent that it is doubtful that by restoration and further development of democratic institutions crime can be eradicated and a humane world created. The capitalist societies, going through a deepening crisis, are facing increasingly realistic possibilities that gangs of criminals might take over the power and establish a dictatorship. They would, of course, be supported by capitalists and the bourgeoisie – if this could prevent radical social changes and provide sustainability to capitalism. We should not forget that fascists in Italy and Germany, at the time of the economic crisis of capitalism, were financed and brought to power by the aristocracy and capitalists (supported by the bourgeoisie) in order to deal with the workers’ movement. By destroying social institutions capitalism creates conditions for gangs of criminals to become the only real social power that can do away with the workers and stop the demise of capitalism. Indeed, the link between mafia and ruling capitalist groups has for decades been the basis for providing power in the most developed capitalist states. The destruction of the emancipatory legacy of civil society, increasing ecological and economic crises, an increasing unemployment rate, devaluation of democratic institutions, mafia links between capitalists and politicians, greater social differences, general criminalization of society, religious fanaticism, the flourishing of fascism – all this creates presuppositions that the deepening crisis of capitalism can turn into a general chaos that can produce a new barbarism. The general chaos is, actually, a “response” by capitalism to the existential crisis it creates and to the existing objective possibilities of the creation of a new world.

Capitalist totalitarianism is the most perilous form of totalitarianism ever created. It is based upon the total commercialization of nature and of society. Each part of the planet, each segment of social and individual life has become an integral part of the destructive capitalist growth mechanism. Life itself becomes a totalizing power that shapes the character of men, their consciousness, interpersonal relationships, their relation to nature… Other historical forms of totalitarianism are either manifested as related to the idea of the past, or a certain transcendental idea, or an idea of the future – all of which open possibilities for critique. Contemporary capitalist totalitarianism is based upon destructive nihilism: it annihilates both the idea of transcendence and the idea of a future (past) and thus it also annuls the very possibility of establishing a critical distance from the existing world. At the beginning of its development, capitalism generated a visionary consciousness that not only opened space for the development of capitalism, but also for overcoming it (More, Campanella, Hobbes, Bacon, Owen, Saint-Simon, Fourier…). By becoming a totalitarian destructive order, capitalism exterminates visionary consciousness and creates a totalitarian positivist consciousness – to which corresponds the concept of the “end of history” and “the last man” (Fukuyama). Capitalism abolishes history, transforming historical time into mechanical occurrence, that is, into a positive nothingness. Simultaneously, capitalist periodicity is not only of an anti-historical, but also of an anti-existential nature. Capitalism destroys the very possibility of a future: it appears in the form of a capitalistically degenerated u-topos.

The myth of an “organized” capitalism, which should help prevent the demise of capitalism, only prolongs the agony of humanity. Unless the ruling order is abolished we cannot make a step forward in creating the possibilities for the survival of humanity and the freedom of man. At the same time, contemporary Nostradamuses, foretelling the “cataclysm of capitalism” by rejecting the emancipatory legacy of civil society and changing potential of the suppressed working layers, only contribute to the struggle with the possibility of creating a reasonable world and thus contribute to the destruction of the world being brought to its close.

The “crisis of the left“ as an organized political movement has resulted from the conflict between capitalism and the emancipating patrimony of civil society, in the course of which all those political movements and concepts that open a possibility for the creation of a new world are being degenerated and eliminated. The “crisis of the left” is actually a crisis of civil society’s political institutions, because capitalism, as a totalitarian order, has drawn the entire “public sphere” into its own interest-orbit and thus instrumentalized the process of political decision-making. Politics has turned into one of the technical areas of capitalism and, as such, into business – just like all the other areas of social life. Capitalism has turned the political sphere into a political market where each party strives to optimally sell its own political program (political commodities) and to convert its social influence into cash, starting from the interest of bureaucratized and corrupt party oligarchies. Political parties have become the private property of their “leaders”, as is the case with many trade unions and other organizations that provide a merely formal opportunity for the mobilization of citizens for the protection of their human and civil rights. An immediate effect of the corruption of (nominally) “leftist” parties is the establishing of an increasingly large anti-capitalist movement that does not consent to a dominant role for parties belonging to the political establishment. The original leftist thought, the one that insists on freedom and social justice, is mostly present among the most deprived working layers and the young – those who are vitally interested in the realization of the original leftist ideas.  Therefore, every effort is being made by the ruling regime to eliminate the oppressed from the public sphere and depoliticize them, and to transform their children – in stadiums, in pop star concerts, in disco clubs, by means of the Hollywood entertainment industry – into zombies, drug addicts, delinquents, fascists… Capitalism endeavors to destroy man as a social being and, in that context, all authentic forms of political (social) organizing of citizens, and to transform man into an atomized laboring-consuming idiot who will base his behavior upon a “logic” of destructive irrationalism. The class struggle was further weakened by the fact that in capitalism, as a consequence of the fight of workers and the economic development of capitalism, certain demands put forward by the traditional left have been met – those, for example, relating to the working and living conditions of workers and their social rights. Most importantly, the worker is integrated into capitalism through the consumer way of living, and the vision of a possible future has been dazzled by TV programs. The confusion over what “the left” is creates a bourgeoisie, which strives to annihilate the labor movement by embracing the ideas of the left and transforming them into demagogical slogans, thus trying to present itself as a “combatant for workers’ rights” and consequently weaken the actual left. A typical example of leftist demagogy is Hitler’s political campaign during the Weimar Republic period. The same political logic is being applied by the contemporary bourgeoisie. The leftist demagogy should “bridge” the growing gap between the bourgeoisie and the labor layers, and should also create confusion in which any notions about the future would disappear.

Though leftist thought is more and more present at Western universities, it is ghettoized and transformed into a vehicle for annihilation of the political struggle of the oppressed. It turns basic existential and essential matters into “philosophical” and “theoretical” issues and thus deprives them of a concrete social and historical substance. The struggle for survival and freedom is being replaced by “theoretical debates” and endless “dialogues” that disfigure critical consciousness and hinder change-oriented practice. Political combat against capitalism is degenerating into “science projects” and “philosophical conferences”, – where everyone within his own field of expertise deals with the consequences generated by capitalism while not touching its origins. Intellect is being removed from concrete social reality and ghettoized in faculties, institutes, workshops and congresses. Concrete existential and essential issues become subjects of theoretical debates, and, as such, by means of specific linguistic expressions, a privilege of “intellectuals”. Philosophical thought becomes a formalistic thought, a distinctive technique of thought of a positivist and, therefore, anti-libertarian and anti-existential nature. The “intellectual sphere“ becomes an institutional form of the citizens’ deprivation of critical reason and of their right to brainpower – and, as such, the basic form of their spiritual and, consequently, every other kind of enslavement.

The crisis of today’s world is at the same time the crisis of the proletariat as a revolutionary agent. In its “consumer phase”, capitalism, through the development of a “consumer standard”, has managed to reduce workers to the instruments for resolving the crisis of over-production, and, thus, to its collaborators in the destruction of the world. Starting from the present position of the working class, the ideologues of capitalism seek to “redefine” the nature of the working class in contemporary capitalism by depriving it of its libertarian class self-consciousness. The conformist behavior of a large part of the working class in the developed capitalist societies is not the consequence of the “disappearance of the working class”, but rather the consequence of the integration of workers into capitalism as a working-consuming “mass”, and of the bourgeoisie’s systematic subversion and suppression of working class organization, class self-consciousness and class struggle. The conforming behavior of workers is, in fact, the consequence of the class domination by the bourgeoisie, and not a process that proceeds by itself, with a fatalistic character. That we are not dealing here with the final integration of workers into the capitalist order, but with a temporary situation, can be seen from the fact that capitalists seek to keep the workers under the ideological “bell jar” of capitalism, and, at the same time, seek to do away with socialist (communist) thought which calls for struggle against capitalism and offers a possibility for creating a humane world. The capitalist propaganda machinery strives to hide the most important thing: capitalists’ fear of workers as a potentially revolutionary agent was, and still is, the most important feature of capitalist political practice.

The disintegration of “consumer society” involves the destruction of the very foundations of capitalism and thus of the entire ideological and propaganda spheres, which can survive only on these foundations. Without the consumer way of living, the ideology of “consumer society” cannot survive either… The worsening economic crisis jeopardizes life based on the “consumer standard” and thus the most important mechanism for integration of workers into capitalism. The disintegration of “consumer society” will awaken millions of people from their consumer dream, and they will then start thinking about the future and begin fighting for survival. The deepening existential crisis created by capitalism and the abolition of elementary human and civil rights will inevitably lead to radicalization, which means to the militarization of the struggle against capitalism. Capitalism forces humanity to use all available means that could stop the destruction of the living world, including those not in the line with the humanist ideals of a new society – which is the ultimate goal of the struggle.

The collapse of “consumer society” leads to mass unemployment and the reduced purchasing power of the working class. There is an urgent need to stabilize capitalism at a lower level of production/consumption; however, with further scientific and technological advances the “white collars” will be predominant. Working “masses” from traditional production branches are no longer the means for accelerating the reproduction of capital, but an economic burden and an increasing political threat for the ruling order. Instead of integrating workers into capitalism by means of a consumer way of life, the strategic goal of the ruling class is the destruction of “supernumerary” citizens. With the deepening capitalist economic crisis, the workers are more and more becoming the mortal foe of capitalism and the ruling order will use all available means (criminalization of society, drugs, alcohol, AIDS, contaminated food, deprivation of medications and health services, etc.) to eliminate the “surplus” and ensure survival. For capitalists, workers are a necessary evil. Elimination of the “surplus” is an economic, ecological and political question for the ruling order. It is the basis of modern fascism, the contours of which are becoming more and more visible in the USA. It is the realization of the concept of the “golden billion”, which with the collapse of “consumer society”, will affect not only nations at the “outskirts of capitalism”, but a significant segment of the working class in the most developed capitalist states. The increasingly jeopardized existence of humanity creates conditions for extreme radicalization of the social-Darwinist concept of “only the strongest survive”, with science and technology becoming the exclusive means for ensuring the dominant position of capitalists and the creation of such artificial living conditions as will protect them from menacing climate changes. It is in this context that we should interpret the endeavors of shadow rulers from the West to use science and technology in the creation of a “new man”, who will be able, with his artificially created “genetic properties” and available military technique, to exterminate the “redundant” and establish a global domination. “Terminators”, “Rambos,” “Predators” and similar Hollywood freaks, glorifying the destructive power of capitalistically misused technology, in the best possible way show the psychological profile of modern capitalist zealots. Power over people and nature becomes the power of destruction.

“Consumer society” represents the last offensive of capitalism and announces its complete and definitive disintegration. It prolongs the life of capitalism by annihilating man as a cultural and biological being, as well as by annihilating nature. This is what determines a specificity of the contemporary left: the victory of the left has become the necessary condition for the survival of humanity. In spite of the harsh anti-communist propaganda, where the ideal of communism is reduced to the practice of Stalinism and this to the “gulags”, communism appears as the only real alternative to capitalism and the only possible future of humanity – in both the essential and existential sense. The general crisis of capitalism, which grew to dramatic proportions in the autumn of 2008, made Karl Marx the most widely read author in the West. With regard to socialist revolutions, their true historical meaning is that they created a revolutionary heritage as the basis for a revolutionary self-consciousness without which there can be no fight for a humane world. It is not victories but defeats that are the best lessons in the fight for the future. The war against capitalism can be won only from the experiences gained in the lost battles for a humane society.

Is the ever-deepening existential crisis of humanity opening a possibility for overcoming the traditional class division? Can the bourgeois class become the ally of the proletariat in the fight for preserving life on this planet? Can the increasingly threatened existence of humanity bring about the creation of a political platform based on reason that will unite people regardless of their positions relative to the means of production? The owners of the means of production and the bourgeois class, who base their (privileged) existence on private property and identify their survival with the survival of capitalism, do not react from reason but from their class interests, and do not focus on the survival of mankind but on increasing their material wealth and consumer standard. They are capitalist zealots, who are, as the crisis of capitalism deepens, prepared to use all the means that, in their opinion, can stop the demise of capitalism, including those which might destroy life on the planet. They persistently believe that capitalism has no alternative and thus question the most important point in Marx’s theory: the notion that capitalism is but one of the historical forms in the development of humanity and that its true value is that it shelters under its “wing” the possibilities of stepping out into a new society that will be the realization of the highest humanist strivings formulated by the guiding principles of the French Revolution.

There are two historical bases for human interconnecting: spontaneous, that is, man’s need for other men (man’s erotic nature, symbolically “love“), and repressive, primarily related to providing immediate existence (labor and all it conditions, symbolically “duty“). In previous historical periods, complying with the repressive basis of human interconnecting was to the detriment of human interconnecting. By becoming homo faber, man restrained and was losing his own authentic human characteristics (erotic nature), which culminated in the capitalist society that became a “technical civilization” within which not only the dehumanization but also the denaturalization of man has taken place. As a totalitarian and global order of destruction, capitalism has imposed the issues of necessity and freedom in a new and far more dramatic manner. Man’s most important existential duty is no longer labor per se, but to struggle for the preservation of life (and the labor related to it). Struggle for survival has imposed itself as a contemporary “realm of necessity”, and on this foundation, man as a totalizing, life-creating being will develop. Contemporary capitalism has “unified” the existential with the essential spheres: the fight for freedom becomes an existential necessity, and the struggle for survival a basic libertarian challenge. Spheres of labor, art, and play are no longer starting points of libertarian practice. Instead, the starting point is man as a totalizing being that perceives his entire life on the existential-essential level, that is, in the context of the fight against capitalism, which has transformed natural laws, social institutions and man into a vehicle for the destruction of life. In that context, labor, through which man’s creative (life-creating) powers are being realized and the true human world created, becomes an essential activity. As the present day production of commodities (goods) concomitantly represents the destruction of life, in that very same way, in the future society, production of commodities will mean production of healthy living conditions and the creation of a healthy man. In the future, the basic task of humanity will be to re-establish environmental balance and, thus, create living conditions in which man can survive. Development of productive forces, the very labor processes, spare time activities – practically all life – will be subordinated to it. In such conditions, competition that has been reduced to struggle for victory through the achievement of a better result (record), as in sports, will remain merely a part of the pre-history of humankind.

What should constitute the new quality of interconnection between people on the basis of struggle for the preservation of life on the planet is the very same thing that should provide incentives for the development of human foundations for human interconnections, which means that it should be conditioned by one man’s need for the other. The fact is that capitalism transformed all social institutions, and the entirety of life, into a vehicle for the growth of profit, that is, for the destruction of life. In order to survive, man has no one to address for assistance but another man: sociability is an existential imperative. In the dialectic sense, man as a fulfilled social being becomes a totalizing life-creating being – in relation to capitalism as a totalizing order of destruction. In that context, one of Marxs basic theses from the “Manifesto of the Communist Party”, claiming that “the freedom of each is a basic condition for the freedom of all”, could be rephrased. Starting from the fact that humankind is jeopardized when the life of each man is jeopardized, one can arrive at the thesis that the survival of each represents the basic condition for the survival of all.

In the struggle for the preservation of life on Earth by the creation of a new world, humankind will be so united that it will supersede all forms of mediation that have kept man apart from other men and turned him into a “tool” of “superhuman” forces for the achievement of anti-human goals. Instead of moral principles, upon which a repressive normative consciousness is being developed and used for the preservation of the ruling order, man’s essential and existential necessity for another man will become the basis for interpersonal connecting. The anti-globalization movement has a historical and existential meaning solely if it represents an integral part of the international anti-capitalist movement. It does not rely upon one social subject of changes alone, as was the case with the industrial proletariat of Marx, but upon a widespread social movement that comprises all the deprived and all those conscious of the fact that capitalism leads humankind into destruction. Movements for the emancipation of women, hundreds of millions of solitary people whose lives were ruined by capitalism – they are all potential members of the movement that will fight against capitalism. At the same time, the decline of the “welfare state” will re-trigger class conflict in the developed capitalist countries. Immediate participation in the political articulation of the contemporary proletariat and other layers and groups ruined by capitalism – this represents one of the most important tasks of the movement. The international anti-capitalist movement needs to unite all those political forces and political movements of the world that oppose contemporary imperialism, which is not only of a genocidal but also of an ecocidal nature. At the same time, it needs to have a critical stance towards developmental programs in any part of the world that are based on the destruction of nature and are aimed at developing a consumer mentality.      

Historically perceived, man was becoming a man primarily through confronting existential challenges. The nature of those challenges conditioned the way they were solved and, thus, had an immediate impact on development of man. The existential challenge capitalism imposes on man is the largest and the most dramatic one he has ever faced.  Never in history has man confronted a task related to the preservation of life on the planet and to preventing the annihilation of humankind.  It is a challenge that supersedes the classical humanist anthropologic definition of man as a universal creative being of freedom. A specificity of capitalism as an order of destruction conditions both the specific nature of the man that defends it, and the specific nature of the man that attempts to oppose it. Capitalism generates a destructive man that becomes a vehicle for the development of capitalism, that is, for the destruction of life. Concurrently, capitalism generates the increasingly militant anti-capitalist man who identifies the meaning of life in destroying capitalism and preserving life on Earth, through the creation of a new world. An increasingly intensive destruction of life results in a more and more ruthless conflict between these two types of men, which actually represent the contemporary class division of the world: a class of destructive capitalist fanatics and a class of reasonable and uncompromising combatants for the survival of humankind.

The turning of capitalism into a totalitarian destructive order conditions man’s turning into a totalizing life-creating being – for whom the emancipatory (libertarian, cultural) heritage of humankind represents the basis for critical self-consciousness and creative (life-creating) will-power. In the struggle for the preservation of life and the creation of the new world, man will become a true man. He is not a mythological man who will, like a present-day Phoenix, ascend from the ashes of capitalism, with his wings unharmed. He is a concrete man who will experience the consequences of the destruction of nature with his entire being, for he represents its organic part. Therefore, creation of the new world requires man’s (self)purification and (self)development – man is becoming a humanized natural (life-creating) being. Instead of cosmic energy (Nietzsche), which is merely a metaphorical presentation of monopolist capitalism’s vital power, within man the life-creating forces of humankind will start to run. “The will to power” will turn into a desire for freedom and survival.

By becoming a totalitarian order of destruction, capitalism increasingly focuses people’s attention on the basic existential, and in that context, the basic essential issues. Capitalism has removed all ideological veils and demystified the truth. Man no longer needs science or philosophy to be able to understand that capitalism destroys life on the planet. Essential relativism is replaced by existential obviousness. It is an unquestionable starting point that inevitably conditions the development of the critical mind and man’s behavior. The increasingly dramatic climate changes, polluted air, water and food, biological destruction of peoples, loneliness that has become epidemic – all this directly affects man as a biological and human being. This is what modern tragedy rests on: man experiences the world’s annihilation as his own annihilation.

The biological clock of humanity is ticking away. The ever more intensive process of destructive capitalist reproduction dramatically shortens the time period in which humanity can stop the destruction of life on this planet. Time began to run backwards – from the zero ecological milestone which, if overstepped, is humanity’s doom. Man can only fight for survival. He must believe that humanity can survive, which means that capitalism can be abolished and a new world created. Man cannot and must not be pessimistic. He must not allow everyday life and the ruling propaganda machinery to bring him to such a psychical state that he gives up on everything and surrenders to nothingness – heading towards death. Faith in the future has become not only the basic essential, but also the basic existential imperative. That is why loneliness is the worst illness brought about by capitalism. A lonely man, lost in a destructive capitalist nothingness, experiences the destruction of life and humanity as the final liberation from all the torments and obligations of being human, which means being responsible for the survival of the world. The most horrible fate that can befall a man is to lose his human warmth, meaning his need for another human being. Only a man who has not lost this basic human quality, his need for other human beings, can strive for a humane world. When a man loses human warmth, he becomes a living dead.

The amount of evil inflicted on people by capitalism is outrageous… The amount of humanity’s suffering is outrageous… And a new, humane world is at hand. All that is needed is to organize and fight.

 

Translated from Serbian by Vesna Todorović

English translation supervisor, Mick Collins

The London Olympics. The Death Games

T

The Olympic Games.
The most important festival of the capitalist world.
“The blue lodge” is full.
The executioners of humankind are getting together.
The Queen is also present.
The British Royal Family…
The bloodiest criminal organization in history.
London is celebrating!
The battle ships, military planes, missiles, police forces, commandos…
The true Olympic surroundings.
Fanfares, marches…
The robots are paraded.
Ave cæsar! Morituri te salutant!
The Queen is waving.
The Queen is laughing.
The Queen is yawning.
“The doves of peace” are disappearing in the darkness of a poisoned sky.
Those are The Olympic Games, dummy!
Laugh!
All must be happy!
“Sport is the cheapest spiritual food for the working masses –
keeping them under control.”
Good old Coubertin.
He knew how sport could rule the people.
The Olympic Games.
They were “The Festival of Youth”.
Today, they are The Festival of Death.
The Queen fell asleep.
Let her.
Let her fall into the endless dream.
Along with Blair, Bush, Clinton, Sarkozy, Obama…
Along with all capitalist criminals.
Sleep! – you Olympic Angels.
Sleep! – you Olympic Bastards.
And never wake up.

Interview with Ljubodrag Duci Simonović: Sport and Pedagogy

I

 

1. What is the purpose of spectacular sports manifestations such as the World Championship in football?

From a historical point of view, each regime has had its own festivals celebrating its highest values. Sport is the embodiment of the ruling spirit of the capitalist order and thus has a cult character. Hence the importance of the sports stadium. It is a modern pagan temple, where in the form of a „sports competition“ spectacular services to the deities that rule the world are performed. The calendar of the greatest sports competitions has become a pattern determining the course of time – just like the Olympic Games in ancient Greece. Pierre de Coubertin, official „father“ of modern Olympic Games, maintained that sports is the „cult of  the existing world“ and as such the most important means for dealing with the political struggle of „working masses“ and for integrating the „lower races“ into the capitalist order – at the level of slaves. „Sportivization“ of the world has become the most important instrument of „mondialists“ for destroying the emancipatory heritage of the civil society and national cultures and for dragging people into the existential and value orbit of capitalism. Considering the scope of misery and poverty in Africa, it is a sad truth that increasing amounts of money are invested in Africa into stadiums and the development of sports show-business, instead of investing in agriculture, education, waterpipes, health…. Obviously, the black rulers use the same governing mechanisms as their white colonial masters in recent past.

2. How should we direct children regarding their attitude to sports spectacles?

We should help them to develop from early years their creative powers, which means their creative being. A developed artistic being is the best „defence“ against primitive sports spectacles. Schiller’s view that „upbringing through art is upbringing for art“ should be the guiding principle in their upbringing. In sport, we have established upbringing without education, which is one of the most fatal postulates of Coubertin’s „utilitarian pedagogy“. It is no accident that Nazis, particularly Hitler, were delighted with Coubertin and his Olympism.

3. It is not possible to isolate children from their environment. What do you think can be done with respect to that? 

Children cannot be kept under the „glass bell“ of „playgrounds“ and „special schools“. The only answer to the increasingly inhumane world is to develop their humane being and their will to fight for a humane world. Bearing in mind the ever more dramatic destruction of nature, such an answer is not only a cultural and libertarian imperative it used to be at the time of Goethe and Schiller, it has become an existential imperative. Hence the development of young people’s emancipated ecological consciousness is one of the most important tasks of modern pedagogy. Ecologically, sport has fatal consequences for young people. In sport, destructive instrumentalization of the body, involving the development of a self-destructive character and consciousness, has reached its peak. Sport is not only one of the most radical forms of dehumanization, it is also man’s denaturalization. It completely corresponds to the „technical civilization“, which destructs nature and man as a human and natural being. In no other social sphere has the monstruous idea of a „man-robot“ been realized to such an extent as in sport.

4. What makes children decide to engage in sport? 

Money and affirmation in the existing world – these things make sport attractive for young people. Millions of dollars, expensive cars, yachts, „macho“ iconography, attractive girls, spectacular photographies of super-built bodies, spotlights, yelling crowds…. Sportsmen appear on TV as modern „supermen“, attractive to young people who are lost in a world where they see no future. The „grandiosity“ of sports spectacles stands in opposition to everyday misery of the majority of young people. Coubertin was right: sport is the „cheapest spiritual food for proletarian youth, keeping it under control“.

5. What is the role of parents?

Many parents are prepared to mercilesly push their children into the sports arena in the belief that they will get rich, thus making them rich too. Only a small number of children succeed – others fall to the bottom of society. Those who manage to acquire some money lose through that process the most important human qualities  – those which money cannot buy. Self-respect, which is acquired from the development of one’s own creative being and intelligence, cannot be bought, and nor can love and respect.

6. What kind of sports activities do you recommend? 

Children should not engage in sport, they should engage in physical culture. And this means in such physical activities which develop their cultural being, enrich relations between people and cultivize their natural being. Sport is predominantly characterized by movement of man against another man and the absolutized principle of a quantitatively measurable performance expressed in the Olympic maxim citius, altius, fortius (faster, farther, stronger). (Genuine) physical culture is characterized by a movement of man towards another man and the performance which affirms man’s peculiar quality as an independent creative being – as is the case in art. In addition, sport creates an artificial (technical) space intended to enable new records – which are not manifestations of the development of human powers, but of man’s destruction as a human and natural being. In opposition to that, in (genuine) physical culture man seeks a cultivated natural movement – in a cultivated natural environement. As far as human relations are concerned, it is legal and legitimate in sport to inflict serious injuries to one’s „opponent“ and kill him. Likewise, there is a segregation with respect to gender, women being the symbol of „weakness“, who are consequently treated as „lower beings“. Comparing boys to girls is the most offensive thing a coach can say to his boys in order to make them „fight“ in games. The ways in which coaches humiliate and destroy young people are unbelievable…. This, of course, is never talked about in order to keep the „humane“ mask which conceals the truth that sport has become the main spiritual drug depolitizing increasingly dissatisfied young people and ensuring the survival of the ruling order.

 7. Do you know what has happened with physical education in schools? 

Physical education in schools is completely degraded and so is the pedagogical role of the teacher of physical education. This is reflected in the change in the name of the „Faculty for Physical Culture“ into the „Faculty for Sport and Physical Education“. Instead of establishing the much needed critical distance from sport from the aspect of a humanistic physical culture, sport has been idealized, while pedagogy of physical culture serves to glorify sport. As far as the expression „physical education“ is concerned, even a lay man can see that physical exercises do not educate the body, but the man. This was emphasized as long ago as in ancient Hellad, as well as in the philantropic movement which developed in Germany after the French Revolution. Even in the most developed capitalist countries in the West the dominant tendency is to eliminate „physical culture“ from the pedagogical theory and practice and introduce „sports education“, thus dealing finally with the efforts to create space in school for the development of young people’s playing being. At the same time, the so-called „mass physical culture“ of the general public has been abolished by a commercialized physical activism and various „body treatments“ aimed at „healing“ the consequences created by the „consumer society“ – which turned man into a consuming idiot and the body into a container devouring increasingly poisonous surrogates of the capitalist civilization.

 

The Manifesto of existential humanism

T

The most important task for the humanist intelligentsia is to develop in contemporary man a self- consciousness that will provide humankind with the possibility to survive. The humanist intelligentsia needs to point out the increasingly dramatic consequences of the development of capitalism as a destructive order, as well as the existing objective possibilities for the creation of a new world. At the same time, it needs to develop a political strategy that will become a starting point for the creation of global forms of political struggle that would impede the destruction of life on the planet and create a new world.

The critique of capitalism should observe two methodological postulates. First: the nature of a certain social (historical) phenomenon is determined by the tendencies of its development – of what it develops into. Second: the nature of a social (historical) phenomenon conditions the nature of its critique. The nature of capitalism, that is, a tendency of its development as a destructive system, conditions both the nature of the critique of capitalism and the political strategy for the fight against capitalism. This is not to suggest the creation of a uniform way of thinking, but a way of thinking that endeavors to ask questions of an existential and essential nature. Such a way of thinking represents a contraposition to the ruling ideology, manifested in the “Coca Cola culture” that tends to marginalize the essential in order to assign a spectacular dimension to the marginal.

A specificity of the contemporary historical moment, that is, a specificity of capitalism as a system of destruction, also conditions the specific view of the past. The ruling ideology sterilizes the libertarian and change-oriented charge of philosophical thought and reduces it to a lifeless “history of philosophy”, which becomes a vehicle for the destruction of the libertarian and life-creating power of reason. Critical theory, based upon existential humanism, needs to create the possibility for “reviving” the creative and libertarian spirit of our ancestors by engaging it in the fight for survival and for the creation of a new world. In the struggle for the survival of humankind, the thinking of the past has to realize its own humanistic, i.e., existential  and  libertarian,  potential. The  deepening  crisis  of  existence  forces  man  to  focus  on  basic existential issues and, in that context, to integrate the libertarian and cultural heritage of humankind and to rid it of any “tails” that only weaken the combat and drive the mind astray. “Fullness of humanity”, in the sense of perceiving man from a historical prospective, is conditioned by increasingly dramatic existential challenges. The libertarian past needs to become a source of man’s life-creating energy in the struggle for the survival of humankind. “Return” to the mythological past is justified only for the revitalization of libertarian and life-creating myths.  Otherwise, it amounts to driving reason astray, and is, regardless of  personal motives, of an anti-existential nature.

A concrete critique of capitalism cannot be based solely upon essential humanism, but must be based upon existential humanism as well. The ideals of the French Revolution – Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité – present a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for the future. The struggle for preservation of life on the planet and for increasing the certainty of the survival of man as a cultural (social) and biological (natural) being represents a conditio sine qua non of the struggle for the future. Instead of the Marx’s notion of “alienation” (Entfremdung), the key notion in the critique of capitalism should be destruction. Marx’s revolutionary humanism emerges in relation to capitalism as a system of non-freedom, injustice, and non-reason, and advocates freedom, social justice, and a reasonable world, which means that it appears in the essential sphere. Existential humanism emerges in relation to capitalism as a destructive order that annihilates nature and man as a biological and human being – and places the struggle for the survival of the living world in the foreground, which means that it appears in the existential sphere. Affirmation of man as a creative and libertarian being is a response to the world where man is alienated from himself as a creative and libertarian being. The assertion that man is a life-creating being is a response to the world based upon the destruction of life: the struggle for freedom becomes the struggle for survival. The struggle for a reasonable world does not only represent an essential, but also an existential challenge. At the same time, Hegel’s (Marx’s) dialectic can be accepted only conditionally as a starting point for the development of a critique of capitalism, for its (historical) pyramid of freedom is founded upon existential certainty.

The “traditional” Marxist critique of capitalism, from the point of view of what-is-yet-to-be (Bloch’s noch- nicht-Sein), is of an abstract nature. The concrete nature of the capitalist positive also conditions the nature of the negative, which is a critical consciousness and a political practice based on it. Contemporary man cannot attain an  appropriate historical self-consciousness starting from  an  absolutized and  idealized anthropological model of man as a universal creative being of freedom, but starting from the existential challenges that capitalism, as a destructive system, imposes on man. Man’s becoming a human being (what he, in his essence, is – a totalizing libertarian, creative and life-creating being) and the world’s becoming a human world are conditioned by capitalism’s becoming capitalism (that is, its turning into what it, in its essence, is – a totalitarian destructive order). A concrete future cannot be grounded in what man desires to do based on his own true human needs, but in what man must do for humankind to survive. The essential level of the future is directly conditioned by existential challenges. The development of capitalism has caused further impossibility for the future as a product of the man’s free (visionary) creative practice (Bloch’s “openness“), but is conditioned by consequences generated by capitalism as a destructive order. Objective possibilities for the creation of a new world, and the possibility for the realization of man as a universal free creative being, are conditioned by the developmental capacities of capitalism as a destructive order. This is the basis for a concrete dialectic of the future. Decimated nature, mutilated man, the accumulated destructive powers of capitalism that could momentarily destroy humankind – this also represents an objective situation that inevitably conditions the probability of the future and its planning. Man does not assign to himself tasks that he can complete, as Marx asserts, but it is capitalism that imposes a crucial task on man: to preserve life on the planet and to save humankind from destruction. Being a match to the historical task imposed on man by capitalism means facing up to capitalism as an order that destroys life.

For Marxist theoreticians, an empty stomach is man’s key existential driving force. Typical is Bloch’s position that “in the foundation of planning should lie hunger, poverty and scarcity”. Capitalism fills the stomachs of its subjects while destroying nature and degenerating man as a natural and human being, turning him into a waste disposal whose role is to destroy as much as possible of the increasingly poisonous surrogates of “consumer” civilization. As for the inborn aggressiveness of man as a living being, capitalism transforms man’s vital aggressiveness into destructive power. The potentially change-oriented energy of people, deriving from their increasing dissatisfaction, becomes, by means of capitalism’s vital and ideological sphere, a spiritus movens of capitalism. Need for life is being transformed into need for destruction. Criticizing Hegel, Bloch rightfully points out the fact that in history not all negations are necessarily a move forward. However, he fails to realize that the capitalist negation leads towards the destruction of the world. Not a word on capitalism as a destructive order, nor, in that context, about consciousness of the possible destruction of life as an essential content of revolutionary consciousness. Anticipation of the future, as a concrete anticipation of a concrete future, must anticipate the development of capitalism, that is, the consequences generated by capitalism as a destructive order that unavoidably condition the freedom of man, and, along with it, the possibility of a future and its concrete nature.

There are two historical bases of human interconnecting: spontaneous, that is, man’s need for other men (man’s erotic nature, symbolically “love“), and repressive, primarily related to providing immediate existence (labor  and  all  it  conditions,  symbolically  “duty“).  In  previous  historical  periods,  complying  with  the repressive basis of human interconnecting was to the detriment of human interconnecting. By becoming homo faber, man restrained and was losing his own authentic human characteristics (erotic nature), which culminated in the capitalist society that became a “technical civilization” within which not only the dehumanization but also the denaturalization of man has taken place. As a totalitarian and global order of destruction, capitalism has imposed the issues of necessity and freedom in a new and far more dramatic manner. Man’s most important existential duty is no longer labor per se, but to struggle for the preservation of life (and the labor related to it). Struggle for survival has imposed itself as a contemporary “realm of necessity”, and on this foundation, man as a totalizing, life-creating being will develop. Contemporary capitalism has “unified” the existential with the essential sphere: the fight for freedom becomes an existential necessity, and the struggle for survival a basic libertarian challenge. Spheres of labor, art, and play are no longer starting points of libertarian practice. Instead, the starting point is man as a totalizing being that perceives his entire life on the existential-essential level, that is, in the context of the fight against capitalism, which has transformed natural laws, social institutions and man into a vehicle for the destruction of life. In that context, labor, through which man’s creative (life-creating) powers are being realized and the true human world created, becomes an essential activity. As the present day production of commodities (goods) concomitantly represents the destruction of life, in that very same way, in the future society, production of commodities will mean production of healthy living conditions and the creation of a healthy man. In the future, the basic task of humanity will be to re-establish environmental balance and, thus, create living conditions in which man can survive. Development of productive forces, the very labor processes, spare time activities, practically all life – will be subordinated to it. In such conditions, competition that has been reduced to struggle for victory through the achievement of a better result (record), as in sports, will remain merely a part of the pre-history of humankind.

What should constitute the new quality of interconnection between people on the basis of struggle for the preservation of life on the planet is the very same thing that should provide incentives for the development of human foundations for human interconnections, which means that it should be conditioned by one man’s need for the other. The fact is that capitalism transformed all social institutions, and the entirety of life, into a vehicle for the growth of profit, that is, for the destruction of life. In order to survive, man has no one to address for assistance but another man: sociability is an existential imperative. In the dialectic sense, man as a fulfilled social being becomes a totalizing life-creating being – in relation to capitalism as a totalizing order of destruction. In that context, one of the basic Marx’s theses from “The Communist Manifesto“, claiming that “the freedom of each is a basic condition for the freedom of all”, could be rephrased. Starting from the fact that humankind is jeopardized when the life of each man is jeopardized, one can arrive at the thesis that the survival of each represents the basic condition for the survival of all.

Capitalist totalitarianism is the most perilous form of totalitarianism ever created. It is based upon the total commercialization of nature and of society. Each part of the planet, each segment of social and individual life has become an integral part of the destructive capitalist growth mechanism. Life itself becomes a totalizing power that shapes the character of men, their consciousness, interpersonal relationships, their relation to nature… Other historical forms of totalitarianism are either manifested as related to the idea of the past, or a certain  transcendental  idea,  or  an  idea  of  the  future  –  all  of  which  open  possibilities  for  critique. Contemporary capitalist totalitarianism is based upon destructive nihilism: it annihilates both the idea of transcendence and the idea of a future (past) and thus it also annuls the very possibility of establishing a critical distance from the existing world. At the beginning of its development, capitalism generated a visionary consciousness that not only opened space for the development of capitalism, but also for overcoming it (More, Campanella, Hobbes, Bacon, Owen, Fourier…). By becoming a totalitarian destructive order, capitalism exterminates visionary consciousness and creates a totalitarian positivist consciousness – to which corresponds the concept of the “end of history” and “the last man” (Fukuyama). Capitalism abolishes history, transforming historical time into mechanical occurrence, that is, into a positive nothingness. Simultaneously, capitalist periodicity is not only of an anti-historical, but also of an anti-existential nature. Capitalism destroys the very possibility of a future: it appears in the form of a capitalistically degenerated u- topos.

Capitalist development of productive forces does not enhance the certainty of human survival, as Marx argues, but questions it more and more dramatically. Therefore, instead of engendering optimism, capitalist “progress” generates fear of the future. The most perilous characteristic of capitalism is related to the fact that, from the results of life-destruction, it creates a source of profit and, thus, a basis for its own further development, where man’s creative powers become a vehicle for the development of the destructive powers of capitalism and for acceleration of the destruction process. Capitalism has become a self-reproducing mechanism of destruction, which, to the living world, represents what a malignant tumor represents to an organism: it extends its own lifetime by devouring all that provides humankind with a chance for survival. This does not refer only to the systematic, but to the ultimate destruction of life on the planet.

Contemporary man does not only face the ideological, military and police terror of the governing order, as used to occur in the past, but also the accumulated destructive powers of capitalism. The spirit of destructive barbarism dominates capitalism, conditioning both the activities of the ruling class and its defense strategy. Usage of atomic, hydrogen and neutron bombs, lethal viruses, starvation of populations, pollution and devastation of water supplies, etc., (that will exterminate hundreds of millions of people and irreversibly contaminate the natural environment) represents – for the capitalistically degenerated international plutocratic “elite” – a “justified measure”, if in that manner the existence of capitalism can be prolonged. In order to prevent the fall of capitalism, the fanatics of capitalism are ready to destroy humankind and life on the planet. The NATO aggression on Serbia in the spring 1999, which compelled Serbia to become a part of the American “new world order”, demonstrates the actual nature of capitalism. More than 32,000 depleted uranium  missiles  were  dropped  on  Serbia,  thus  causing  a  contamination  of  the  natural  environment equivalent to the effects of more than 470 of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Seven years after the bombing of Serbia, the number of people with cancer has increased by 40%, with a tendency towards a dramatic increase in the number of diseased and deceased. In the course of the next 500 years, the life of people living in the bombed areas will be directly conditioned by the consequences of nuclear contamination of the soil, water, air, animals, plants… What happened to the citizens of Serbia occurs all over the planet. Their future is predetermined by consequences generated by destructive capitalist barbarism of a global and totalitarian nature.

Capitalism destroys the emancipatory legacy of civil society and the concept of novum, and establishes a “new” fascism. The champions of contemporary fascism are not the groups of young people “adorned” with Nazi symbols, but capitalist corporations that, generating the increasing existential and, therefore, overall social crisis, generate the fascist ideology. The ruling principle of monopoly capitalism, “Destroy the competition!”, is a generator of the contemporary fascist practice both in the economic and in the political spheres. The capitalist destruction of nature and of man as a cultural and biological being conditions the foundation and strengthening of the most reactionary political forces. Not only the possibility of a new society, but also of a “new” (ecocidal) barbarism, is being established within capitalism. Within capitalism itself there exists a conflict between these two tendencies. It is both the basis and the framework of the contemporary class struggle, which is not solely about fighting for social justice, but also for survival. Marx himself indicates a  possibility for  establishing a  (long)  period  of  capitalist barbarism (as  well  as  the possibility of common ruin for both the ruling and the labor classes), however, this position does not have substantial enough a significance in his theory (and is, therefore, without any obligatory nature) for Marx to elaborate any such possible forms of development of capitalism and the corresponding forms of political struggle against it. At the same time, potential capitalist barbarism, according to him, is not of a destructive, but of an anti-libertarian nature. Marx fails to perceive that capitalism, in its essence, represents an ecocidal barbarism, of a technical form, and, consequently, that capitalists are ecocidal barbarians.

The capitalist system’s ecocidal attitude towards nature generates the genocidal attitude of the most powerful capitalist states towards “third world” nations. Particularly those developed states whose consumption of commodities is several hundred times larger than consumption in the underdeveloped world; those who spend far more foodstuff and energy on their household pets than billions of people in “third world” countries do to survive; those who have been destroying life on the planet for several hundred years and building their own “progress” on the systematic eradication of “primitive peoples”; those who invest increasingly large sums of money each year in burning down mountains of foodstuffs while millions of children throughout the world die of starvation; those who use grain for the production of fuel, those who stir up consumer euphoria in their own environments and block food production in underdeveloped countries in order to force them to purchase their grain crop surpluses and thus tighten even further the debt-noose around their necks – they especially spread fear of “endangering the planet by over-population”. The thesis of “over-population” of the planet becomes a tool for attaining legitimacy for the extermination of entire nations so that the most powerful capitalist corporations can eventually get hold of raw materials and energy resources.

Capital’s ruthless attitude towards nature and humankind generates man’s ruthless attitude towards other men. Driven by capital’s ecocidal frenzy, the average citizen (petit bourgeois) in the West is characterized by an increasing lack of receptivity to the suffering and the “human rights” of other nations. The leading Western TV channels cover the rescue of a stranded whale for days, where millions of dollars are being invested – in order to impress the international audience with their “care for the living world” – but they never even consider reporting on the horrendous dimensions of misery and poverty in “third world” countries, which are an immediate consequence of the economic fascism to which those countries are exposed. Those scenes “are not interesting for their audience”. And this is true. The overstuffed and idiotized petit bourgeois of the “free world” does not want to confront the consequences of his own insatiable craving for consumption and devastation, in the same way that the average German petit bourgeois did not want to (and does not want to even now) know anything about the horrible crimes committed by the German army in World War II, particularly about the “death camps” where in a monstrous manner millions of children, women, and elderly people were killed…The alarming truth is that in the eyes of the today’s German petit bourgeois Hitler committed one single “mistake”: he did not win. And this conception is not a remnant of the past but a product of capitalist development, which deteriorated and destroyed the German natural environment to such an extent that the notion of the conquest of “living space” (Lebensraum) is being more and more dramatically imposed as a basic existential issue. Ecocidal capital is what invigorates ghosts of the Nazi past, once again pushing German youth towards them, young people idiotized by the “Coca Cola culture” and dazzled by consumer fanaticism, youth that could once again serve as a tool for the extermination of “lesser races”, or, as the contemporary rightist propaganda in the West prefers to put it, of “peoples with no culture” (those being all the nations interfering with the achievement of the West’s neo-colonial interests).

It should not be forgotten that the development of capitalism is based upon one of the most atrocious crimes ever committed: the eradication of the North American Indians. What gives a specific dimension to that crime is the fact that American capitalists turned the extermination of the Indians into a multi-billion dollar “business”. It did not suffice that the North American natives were exterminated in the most brutal manner, but they had to be reduced to “despicable murderers”, and as such became “stars” in the Hollywood film industry. Indians, victims of the largest genocide in human history, became symbols of evil, while those who massacred millions of Indian children became the incarnation of audacity and goodness. The extermination of the Indians represents a symbolic obliteration of life lived in harmony with nature. “Heroes” of the “Wild West”, such as Buffalo Bill, are an incarnation of the ecocidal spirit of capitalism: the monstrous slaughter of the buffalo becomes a legendary “pastime” and inviolable pattern of behavior for the youth in the U.S.A. and Europe.

The “crisis of the left“ as an organized political movement has resulted from the conflict between capitalism and the emancipating patrimony of civil society, in the course of which all those political movements and concepts that open a possibility for the creation of a new world are being degenerated and eliminated. The “crisis of  the  left”  is  actually a  crisis of  civil society’s  political institutions, because capitalism, as  a totalitarian order, has drawn the entire “public sphere” into its own interest-orbit and thus instrumentalized the process of political decision-making. Politics has turned into one of the technical areas of capitalism and, as such, into business – just like all the other areas of social life. Capitalism has turned the political sphere into a political market where each party strives to optimally sell its own political program (political commodities) and to convert its social influence into cash, starting from the interest of bureaucratized and corrupt party oligarchies. Political parties have become private property of their “leaders”, as is the case with many trade unions and other organizations that provide a merely formal opportunity for the mobilization of citizens for the protection of their human and civil rights.

An immediate effect of the corruption of (nominally) “leftist” parties is the establishing of an increasingly large anti-capitalist movement that does not consent to a dominant role for parties belonging to the political establishment. The original leftist thought, the one that insists on freedom and social justice, is mostly present among the most deprived working layers and the young – those who are vitally interested in the realization of the  original leftist ideas. Therefore, every effort is  being made by  the  ruling regime to  eliminate the oppressed from the public sphere and de-politicize them, and to transform their children – in stadiums, in pop star concerts, in disco clubs, by means of the Hollywood entertainment industry – into zombies, drug addicts, delinquents, fascists… Capitalism endeavors to destroy man as  a social being and, in that context, all authentic forms of political (social) organizing of citizens, and to transform man into an atomized laboring- consuming idiot who will base his behavior upon a “logic” of destructive irrationalism.

The confusion over what “the left” is creates a bourgeoisie, which strives to annihilate the labor movement by embracing the ideas of the left and transforming them into demagogical slogans, thus trying to present itself as a “combatant for workers’ rights” and consequently weaken the actual left. A typical example of leftist demagogy is Hitler’s political campaign during the Weimar Republic period. The same political logic is being applied by the contemporary bourgeoisie. The leftist demagogy should “bridge” the growing gap between the bourgeoisie and the labor layers, and should also create confusion in which any notions about the future would disappear.

Though leftist thought is more and more present at Western universities, it is ghettoized and transformed into a  vehicle for annihilation of the political struggle of the oppressed. It turns basic existential and essential matters into “philosophical” and “theoretical” issues  and thus deprives them of  a  concrete social and historical substance. The struggle for survival and freedom is being replaced by “theoretical debates” and endless  “dialogues”  that  disfigure  critical  consciousness  and  hinder  change-oriented practice.  Political combat against capitalism is degenerating into “science projects” and “philosophical conferences”, – where everyone within his own field of expertise deals with the consequences generated by capitalism while not touching its origins. Intellect is being removed from concrete social reality and ghettoized in faculties, institutes, workshops and congresses. Concrete existential and essential issues become subjects of theoretical debates, and, as such, by means of specific linguistic expressions, a privilege of “intellectuals”. Philosophical thought becomes a formalistic thought, a distinctive technique of thought of a positivist and, therefore, anti- libertarian and anti-existential nature. The “intellectual sphere“ becomes an institutional form of the citizens’ deprivation of critical reason and of their right to brainpower – and, as such, the basic form of their spiritual and, consequently, every other enslavement.

“Consumer society“ represents the last offensive of capitalism and announces its complete and definitive disintegration. It prolongs the life of capitalism by annihilating man as a cultural and biological being, as well as by annihilating nature. This is what determines a specificity of the contemporary left: the victory of the left has become the necessary condition for the survival of humankind.

As for the concept of the reasonable world, it represents not merely a humanistic desire, but an existential imperative as well. Only a reasonable man can demolish capitalism and create a new world. Therefore, the annihilation of man as a reasonable being represents one of the most significant tasks of the ruling order. In that context, capitalism annihilates humanist education and the humanist intelligentsia. Capitalism generates, on the one hand, “white collars” – a technical intelligentsia, the leading force for the destruction of the planet, reduced to specialty-idiots, and on the other hand, “blue collars” – a manipulated labor force deprived of a basic education. The consequences are more and more visible. After so many years of life within capitalist civilization and after such “progress” achieved within it, an increasing number of people become victims of the gloomiest ideologies, the morbidity of which by far exceeds anything seen thus far in history. Several thousand “Satanist” and similar cults are active in the United States of America alone, which is an immediate consequence of the ruthless obliteration of human spiritual integrity. “Consumer society” throws a man into the abyss of spiritual desperation, where dark forces await offering to “fulfill his needs” by means of the kind of manipulation that capital applies to transform him into a brainless “consumer”. For the man lost in the darkness, even the burning stake represents a source of light and a guidepost.

All the symbols by which man could once distinguish his own human image and attain, at least partially, his own humaneness, have been disfigured by the capitalist propaganda machinery. The commercial message “Coca-cola, it’s the real thing!” is given the status of a supreme philosophical stance; a detached pork head laughs inciting the man to buy parts of its body; toilets are advertised by means of outstanding artistic creations; champion sport teams become commercial billboards for producers of tobacco and alcoholic beverages; the greatest artists are being used as vehicles for communication of commercial messages; the nude female body in a humiliating position makes an inevitable part of a “successful advertising campaign“; very young children are being exposed to the most repulsive forms of advertising manipulation… All that possesses or might possess a human (cultural) value becomes a tool for rendering man worthless. By privatization of the public media, capital offers citizens “democracy” in the form of “a room of distorted mirrors”: in one of the mirrors man can observe “himself” as a crazed “consumer”; in another as a frantic “spectator”; in a third as a maniacal “murderer”; in the forth as a robotized “champion”… All possible efforts are being made to prevent him from perceiving his actual libertarian and creative image.

Along with the further development of the existential crisis, the governing regime creates an increasingly aggressive “entertainment industry” by means of which it intends to keep man “in a good mood” (in accordance with the principle “Don’t worry, be happy!”), in order to impede the human experience of his own existence, his confrontation with his own misfortune and his pursuit of the ways towards liberation from it. What we have here is the “Titanic syndrome”: as the ship sinks – the music gets louder. Using all available means, the major media make every effort to immerse man in the swamp of “Coca Cola culture”, for only at a point when man poses the question of future, when he becomes aware of the scale of global destruction – only then does the entire threat of established “progress” become obvious. It is not by accident that the new generations are, for the first time in history, more badly educated than were their parents. In the most developed capitalist country in the world, the U.S.A., over one hundred million people are practically illiterate. At the same time, the increasingly aggressive and inhuman commercial video clips become “spiritual food” for people. “The average” citizen of the U.S.A. receives over 3,000 commercial messages a day. The school system, as educational institution, faces a growing crisis. The entire cultural heritage of Western civilization, as well as the humanist achievements of other civilizations, is endangered. What we are facing here is development dictated by the governing system with the task of adjusting the intellectual (educational) level of citizens to its own existential interests, hindering the development of a critical mind that points out both the peril that capitalism represents and the opportunities for the creation of a new world generated within civil society.

The fact is that man has developed production capacities to such an extent, and has become sufficiently skilled (proficient) as to be able to take into his own hands not only production management processes, but also  the  administration  of  all  social  existence.  Therefore,  the  ultimate  liberation  of  humankind  from oppression and existential uncertainty is no longer a fantasy, but a realistic prospect. The basic objective of the entertainment industry is to impede the forming of  an active, change-oriented connection between established technological development and man’s endeavors to utilize it in order to fulfill his own actual needs and provide a more certain future. The increasingly ruthless attacks by the capitalist media on critical reason represent a capitalist response to the growing devastation capitalism generates, and to the already established objective possibilities for man to step beyond the capitalist world into a civilization of freedom. Mafia  gangs,  “kings”  of  the  underworld, leaders  of  “Satanist” cults  and  fascist  clans,  owners  of  the entertainment industry (where sport occupies the most significant position), dealers of narcotics, major religious organizations, writers of horoscopes and other “clairvoyants” and fortune-tellers – all of those playing a part in the obliteration of mind capable of confronting the established destructive processes – are all “natural” allies of capitalism. Metaphysical mysticism and religious fanaticism represent the other side of a “technical civilization” that deprived life of its significance and transformed man into a vehicle for the reproduction of profit. In contemporary capitalism, referring to God actually represents one of the forms for the petit bourgeois to renounce his own responsibility for the destruction of the world. Major religions have become a vehicle for the annihilation of civil society’s emancipating patrimony and for the obliteration of faith in the possibility of creating a just world – if we fight for it.

Developing  man’s  “normal”  needs  up  to  a  pathological  (self-destructive)  extent,  capital  endeavors  to transform man into a consumer-destructor, and to generate “new needs” aimed at extending the markets (areas of destruction). Maniacal and destructive hedonism has become spiritus movens of social life. The velocity and intensity of the “fulfillment of needs” are being dictated by the needs of the capital, and ultimately, by the dynamics of its turnover. According to Allen Bloom, author of “The Closing of the American  Mind”,  life  has  been  transformed  into  an  incessant,  commercially  arranged  masturbation machinery. What  we  have  here  is  such  a  sort  of  “needs  fulfillment” as  causes  the  degeneration and destruction of man. The genetic distortion of man is going on, that could result in such mutations as would allow the creation of the “ideal citizen”, “adjusted” to the requirements of the governing order of destruction. Man’s degenerated “needs” become a propellant for the development of capitalism. Concurrently, there are a growing number of interpositions to their fulfillment, of an unsurprisingly commercial nature. The very manner of need-fulfillment becomes technical, which only indicates the fact that man perceives himself more and more as a robotized and less as a natural and human being.

The model of “successful sexual intercourse” is a typical example of the capitalist degeneration of instincts and of the destruction of man as a social being. “Sexual intercourse” is being reduced to the techniques of “love making”, where the partner’s body becomes a tool for achieving orgasm – along with the usage (interposing) of a growing number of “devices”. “Successful sex” in a “consumer society” requires: adequate lighting, mirrors, bed, mattress, pillows, linen, rugs, curtains, TV, video, camcorder, porn films, sexy underwear, appropriate drinks, special food, dishware, home audio system, CDs and cassettes, adequate bathroom, towels, soaps, cosmetics, air conditioners, contraceptives and manuals for their application, remedies to cure consequences of those, potions for stimulation of sexual ability and devices in a form of prosthesis and artificial penises (which vary in dimension, color and swiftness), belts, chains, handcuffs, wigs, whips, artificial teeth, breast-pump (the latest “hit” given the increasing number of artificial breast implants), blood pressure measuring device, light and heavy narcotics and, of course, the appropriate “partner”. Along with the impoverishment of the world of true love and interpersonal respect, the “world of sexual fantasy”, generated by capital, becomes more and more prosperous.

Sterilization of the life-creating (fecund) power of living creatures has become a universal principle of capitalist development. Capitalism obliterates man as a biological being by depriving him of the ability to be a fecund being. Men and women contain fewer and fewer of the organic ingredients required for fecundity. The polluted environment, poisoned water and foodstuffs, the spoiling of the biological rhythm of the organism’s functioning, increasing existential uncertainty that incessantly keeps man in a condition of stress – they all result in increasingly serious corporal and mental damage. The recuperation of life-creating ability by man as a fecund (life-creating) being represents one of the most important tasks that capitalism poses for man.

The ruthless devastation of the social fabric represents another major characteristic of capitalism. A growing number of people live alone (in large cities of the most developed West European countries almost one-half of the citizens live in a “single member household”), while a sense of loneliness generating the worst forms of social pathology assumes epidemic proportions. While in some industrial sectors the workday had to be shortened, the need for a “mobile” labor force has increased, which means that individuals in a position to be at the company’s disposal at all times have an advantage while applying for a new job. And those are the ones “liberated” from all social and, in particular, family obligations. A growing number of women expose them to “voluntary” sterilization in order to “win employer’s confidence” – and get a job. The official duration of the workday becomes, more and more, a non-mandatory form. The subordination of all life to the growing velocity of capital’s reproduction is one of the key causes of the dramatic reduction in the birth rate in developed capitalist countries.

Speaking of family, capital annihilates the biological ties between parents and children. More specifically, in a growing number of cases, one cannot use the term “parents” because paternity, as well as maternity, are being obtained by means of a cash-for-commodity transaction: an individual intent on becoming a “parent” purchases  at  the  market  “child  generating  material”  (along  with  a  mandatory  “commodity  quality guarantee”), contracts (most often through a newspaper ad) renting a uterus and after a nine-month period “is provided”  with   a   child.  Traditional  inter-family  relationships  are   being   annulled  by   transgender transformation of parents and other household members. Thanks to medical “progress”, by means of a surgical intervention, a mother becomes a man, a father a woman; brother turns into a girl, and sister into a boy… This “progress” is never ending. Medicine will soon be in a position to provide the opportunity to a man who “feels like a dog” to even look like one (or like a horse, a swine, a rhinoceros…). This will represent the ultimate outreach of “freedom” that capitalism, riding on the wave of scientific and technological “progress”, will offer to citizens. What sort of possibilities will open there? Try to imagine a rugby match between bulldog-men and boar-men: what a performance!

The myth about “omnipotent science and technology” is the ruling regime’s favorite vehicle for preserving the already considerably shaken confidence in the “progressive power” of capitalism. Similar to Hitler’s propaganda machinery at the time of the agony of the Nazi regime, the current propaganda machinery of capitalism attempts to convince the world that scientific and technological “miracles” will save it from destruction. Until recently, nuclear power plants were a symbol of “progress”. Now, like specters of death, they have become symbols of the destructive nature of capitalism. Abominable cargos are being transported throughout the “free world”, hundreds of thousands of containers packed with the most poisonous nuclear waste have been dumped into the oceans thus far. The planet is warming up, glaciers are melting, the level of the ocean is rising, the ozone layer is vanishing, climate is changing, soil is more and more polluted, forests are disappearing, drinking water has become a “strategic raw material”… It has turned out that even the most horrifying natural disasters represent merely innocuous phenomena in comparison with ecocidal terrorism to which capital exposes nature every day. When the dimensions of the destruction expected to result from the further development of capitalism are taken into consideration, one can conclude that even the most primitive human communities are superior to capitalism. The fight against the illusion that it is possible to prevent the global Apocalypse within the capitalist system, by means of science and technology and “environmental projects”, is one of the most important tasks of the humanist intelligentsia.

Marcuse’s concept of the “liberating transformation of nature” attains a concrete historical dimension only when it refers to the process of capitalism’s destructive “transformation” of nature. In capitalism, the spirit (Geist) by means of which nature attains self-consciousness (Hegel) has been abolished by technology that possesses not only an anti-spiritual (anti-intellectual) but also an anti-existential nature. It is a form within which the natural forces have been instrumentalized in a capitalist manner and turned into an anti-natural power. The “liberating transformation of nature” is not only of a libertarian, but also of an existential nature. The key defect of mere nature is not that it is non-intellectual, but that it cannot prevent the destruction of life on Earth. Preventing the instrumentalization of natural forces for the purposes of the destruction of life, and the preservation of life on Earth through the preservation of nature as a life-creating whole by means of its humanization – this is a crucial task for humankind. Not the liberation of man from nature, but the liberation of man and nature from capitalism represents the basic condition for both freedom and survival.

Historically perceived, man was becoming a man primarily through confronting existential challenges. The nature of those challenges conditioned the way they were solved and, thus, had an immediate impact on development of man. The existential challenge capitalism imposes on man is the largest and the most dramatic one he has ever faced. Never in history has man confronted a task related to the preservation of life on the planet and to preventing the annihilation of humankind. It is a challenge that supersedes the classical humanist anthropologic definition of man as a universal creative being of freedom. A specificity of capitalism as an order of destruction conditions both the specific nature of the man that defends it, and the specific nature of the man that attempts to oppose it. Capitalism generates a destructive man that becomes a vehicle for the development of capitalism, that is, for the destruction of life. Concurrently, capitalism generates the increasingly militant anti-capitalist man who identifies the meaning of life in destroying capitalism and preserving life on Earth, through the creation of a new world. An increasingly intensive destruction of life results in a more and more ruthless conflict between these two types of men, which actually represent the contemporary class division of the world: a class of destructive fanatics of capitalism and a class of reasonable and uncompromising combatants for the survival of humankind.

The turning of capitalism into a totalitarian destructive order conditions man’s turning into a totalizing life- creating being – for whom the emancipatory (libertarian, cultural) heritage of humankind represents the basis for critical self-consciousness and creative (life-creating) will-power. In the struggle for the preservation of life and the creation of the new world, man will become a true man. He is not a mythological man who will, like a present-day Phoenix, ascend from the ashes of capitalism, with his wings unharmed. He is a concrete man who  will experience the  consequences of  the  destruction of  nature with his entire being, for  he represents its organic part. Therefore, creation of the new world requires man’s (self)purification and (self)development – man is becoming a humanized natural (life-creating) being. Instead of cosmic energy (Nietzsche), which is merely a metaphorical presentation of monopolist capitalism’s vital power, within man the life-creating forces of humankind will start to run. “The will to power” will turn into a desire for freedom and survival.

In the struggle for the preservation of life on Earth by the creation of a new world, humankind will be so united that it will supersede all forms of mediation that have kept man apart from other men and turned him into a “tool” of “superhuman” forces for the achievement of anti-human goals. Instead of moral principles, upon which a repressive normative consciousness is being developed and used for the preservation of the ruling order, man’s essential and existential necessity for another man will become the basis for interpersonal connecting. The anti-globalization movement has a historical and existential meaning solely if it represents an integral part of the international anti-capitalist movement. It does not rely upon one social subject of changes alone, as  was  the  case with the  industrial proletariat of  Marx,  but upon  a widespread social movement that comprises all the deprived and all those conscious of the fact that capitalism leads humankind into destruction. Movements for the emancipation of women, hundreds of millions of solitary people whose lives were ruined by capitalism – they are all potential members of the movement that will fight against capitalism. At the same time, the decline of the “welfare state” will re-trigger class conflict in the developed capitalist countries. Immediate participation in the political articulation of the contemporary proletariat and other layers and groups ruined by capitalism – this represents one of the most important tasks of the movement. The international anti-capitalist movement needs to unite all those political forces and political movements of the world that oppose contemporary imperialism, which is not only of a genocidal but also of ecocidal nature. At the same time, it needs to have a critical stance towards developmental programs in any part of the world that are based on the destruction of nature and aim at developing a consumer mentality.

We are not suggesting the development of a distinctive intellectual “elite” that would declare itself “the conscience” of humankind and thus become a group alienated from “ordinary” people, but a commitment by people conscious of the destructive nature of capitalism and willing to dedicate their lives to the struggle for the preservation of life and the freedom of humankind. A genuine humanist intelligentsia needs to light the road to the future. In the context of an increasingly dramatic existential crisis generated by capitalism, it needs to become a lighthouse that will shine with an expanding glow, as the darkness generated by capitalism grows thicker. The Promethean principle has become a basic existential principle. That is why it is of crucial importance not to make compromises and not to adjust to the current political situation. A compromise results in the loss  of the ability to create light –  without which humankind will vanish into the darkness  of destructive capitalist nothingness.

 

English translation supervisor, Mick Collins

Paris, E-mail: cirqueminime@club-internet.fr

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